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语法|文言文
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倒装是将语句中的主语谓语宾语状语等颠倒顺序的一种语法现象,常常具有强调语气,在古汉语文言文和英语语句中比较常见。

基本信息

  • 中文名称

    倒装

  • 外文名称

    flip

  • 拼音

    dào zhuāng

折叠 编辑本段 文言倒装

折叠 主谓倒装

有时候为了强调谓语,会把它放在主语的前面。这仅仅是语言表达的需要。

如,"甚矣,汝之不惠!"(《愚公移山》)另外,还有定语置于中心词之后,修饰名词的量词放在名词之后等特殊现象,因不常用,因此按下不表。

1、嘻!晏子之家若是其贫也! (《晏子春秋·晏子辞千金》)

2、悲哉,世也!(《工之侨献琴》)

折叠 宾语前置

1、否定句中代词宾语前置

这类宾语前置,要具备两个条件:一是宾语必须是代词;二是必须是否定句,由"不"、"未"、"毋"、"莫"等否定词表示。在这种情况下,代词宾语要放在动词之前和否定词之后。

例如:《硕鼠》:"三岁贯汝,莫我肯顾。""莫我肯顾"应理解成"莫肯顾我"。

2、疑问句中代词宾语前置

文言文中用疑问代词"谁"、"何"、"奚"、"安"等做宾语时往往放在动词的前面。

例如:《鸿门宴》:"良问曰:'大王来何操?'""何操"应理解为"操何"。

3、介词宾语前置

在现代汉语中,介词后面跟着宾语,组成介宾结构,用来修饰动词谓语。在文言文中,介词宾语往往置与介词之前,形成一种倒置的现象。

例如:《岳阳楼记》:"噫!微斯人,吾谁与归?""谁与归"就是"与谁归"。

4、普通宾语前置(略)

在一般性的宾语前置中,大家要注意语感。

文言文中,动词或介词的宾语,一般置于动词或介词之后,但在一定条件下,宾语会前置,其条件是:

第一、疑问句中,疑问代词作宾语,宾语前置。这类句子,介词的宾语也是前置的。

如:"沛公安在?"(《史记.项羽本记》)

这种类型的句子关键是作宾语的疑问代词(像:谁、何、奚、曷、胡、恶、安、焉等)。值得注意的是,介词"以"的宾语比较活跃,即使不是疑问代词,也可以前置。如:"余是以记之,以俟观人风者得焉。"(柳宗元《捕蛇者说》)其中的"是"是一般代词,但也前置了。

第二、文言否定句中,代词作宾语,宾语前置。

这类句子有两点要注意,一是否定句(一般句中必须有"不"、"未""毋"、"无"、"莫"等否定词);二是代词作宾语。如:"时人莫之许也。"(陈寿《三国志.诸葛亮传》)正常语序应该是"时人莫许之也。"

第三、用"之"或"是"把宾语提前取动词前,以突出强调宾语。

这时的"之"只是宾语前置的标志,没有什么实在意义。如:"句读之不知,惑之不解。"(韩愈《师说》)有时,还可以在前置的宾语前加上一个范围副词"唯",构成"唯…….....是……....."的格式。如:"唯利是图"、"唯命是从"等。

第四、介词宾语前置的情况除了第一种情况外,还有一种情况,就是方位词时间词作宾语时,有时也前置;例如:"业文南向坐。"(《史记.项羽本记》)意思是"业文面向南坐。"

§宾语前置相当多见,有几种情况。一是否定句中代词作宾语,宾语提前。

古之人不余欺也。(不欺余) (苏轼《石钟山记》)。

天大寒,砚冰坚,手指不可屈伸,弗之怠。(弗怠之) (宋濂送东阳马生序》)

一是疑问句中代词作动词或介词的宾语,宾语提前。例如:

大王来何操? (操何) (司马迁《鸿门宴》)

沛公安在? (在安) (同上)

子何恃而往? (侍何) (彭端淑《为学》)

微斯人,吾谁与归? (与谁) (范仲淹《岳阳楼记》)

不然,籍何以至此? (以何) (司马迁《鸿门宴》)

一是用"之"或"是"把宾语提到前边。例如:

句读之不知,惑之不解。(不知句读,不解惑)(韩愈《师说》)

唯利是图(图利)

折叠 状语后置

现代汉语中状语置于谓语之前,若置于谓语之后便是补语。但在文言文中,处于补语的成分往往要以状语来理解。

例如:《鸿门宴》:"将军战河北,臣战河南。""战河南"即"战(于)河南",应理解为"于河南战"。《促织》:"覆之以掌"即"以掌覆之"应理解为"用手掌覆盖(蟋蟀)"。

状语后置最常见一种形式是介词结构后置。在现代汉语里,介词结构常常放在动词前作状语,古代汉语里有则往往置后作补语。例如:

青,取之于蓝,而青于蓝。(荀子《劝学》)

得双石于潭上。(苏轼《石钟山记》)

君子博学而日参省乎己。(荀子《劝学》)

生乎吾前,其闻道也固先乎吾,吾从而师之。(韩愈《师说》)

为坛而盟,祭以尉首。(司马迁《陈涉世家》)

折叠 定语后置

所谓的定语后置,就是指在文言中,把修饰限定的词放在宾语中心语(即中心词)后面

例如:

遂率子孙荷担者三夫。(《列子·愚公移山》)

大阉之乱,绍绅而能不易其志者,四海之大,有几人欤? (张溥《五人墓碑记》)

石之铿然有声者,所在皆是也。(苏轼《石钟山记》)

折叠 编辑本段 英语倒装

倒装是一种语法手段,用于表示一定的句子结构或强调某一句子成分倒装句有两种:完全倒装和部分倒装。

折叠 完全倒装

1. 完全倒装即把整个谓语放到主语之前(是整个谓语动词,而非助动词)。

例如:

①The teacher came in and the class began.(没有倒装)

②In came the teacher and the class began. (老师走了进来,然后开始上课。)

2. there引出的完全倒装句:除了最常见的there be句型以外,there还可以接appear,exist,lie,remain,seem to be,stand等,一般都译成"有"的含义,构成完全倒装句。

例如:

There appeared to be a man in black in the distance.(远处有个穿黑色衣服的人。)

3. 由地点和时间副词引出的完全倒装句:以地点副词here,there和时间副词now,then开头,后面的动词是be,come,exist,fall,follow,go,lie,remain,seem,stand(表移动或动态的不及物动词)等,而主语又是名词时,构成完全倒装句。

例如:

Up climbed the boy when his mother came.

4. 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词且主语是名词时使用完全倒装

5. 在强调状语

1)当句首状语为方位词或拟声词,谓语动词为go,come等表示位置转移的动词时句子须倒装。

例如:

① Up went the plane.

② In came the chairman and the meeting began.

注:如果主语是代词则不发生倒装。

例如:

① They rushed out!

② He bent Lower and lower.

2) 当句首状语为表示地点、方向等的介词词组时,句子须倒装。例如:

① Round the corner walked a large policeman.

② Under the table was lying a half-conscious young man.

3)当句首状语由"only +副词","only +介词词组","only +状语从句"构成时,句子须倒装。

例如:

① Only yesterday did he find out that his watch was missing. (不属于完全倒装)

② Only because there were some cancelled bookings did he get some tickets in the end.

4)当句首状语为here,there,now,then等时,句子须倒装,主语是代词时,句子不用倒装。

例如:

① Here is a ticket for you.

② Now comes your turn.

③ Here he comes.

6. 以关联词so (…that)开头的句子中,句子须倒装。

例如:

① So small was the mark that I could hardly see it.

② So quickly did the workmen finish their work that they were given a bonus.

③ So much does he worry about his financial position that he can't sleep at night.

注:在该结构中,"so +形容词"是表语的前置;"so +副词"是状语的前置。

7. 在叙事性书面语中,直接引语后常跟asked Mary,answered John,said the old lady,grunted Peter之类的词语。在这些词语中,动词常在主语之前,主语是代词时,不用倒装。

例如:

①"What do you mean?" asked Henry.

②"What do you mean?" he asked.

8. often,many a time等表示频度的状语置于句首时

例如:

Often did they think of going there,but they never had a chance. [这里应该是部分倒装,仅助动词do提前]

9.在as,though引导的让步状语从句中,一般将形容词、副词或名词等置于句首。

例如:

①Small as the atom is,we can smash it.

②Big as the workpiece is,it is turned out with.

注意:

1) 在here,there引出的倒装句中,当主语是普通名词时用完全倒装句,但当主语是代词时,就要用部分倒装句;若主语为人称代词,句子不倒装。

例:

①Here comes the postman!(邮递员终于来了!注意实意谓语动词位于主语之前。)

②Here we are.(我们到了。注意系动词位于主语代词之后。)

2) 当主语是代词,谓语是系动词,表语是说明性的词、词组和定语从句时,可以使用完全倒装句,起强调作用。

例:

①Lucky is he who has been enrolled into a famous university.(他真幸运,被一所名牌大学录取了。)

②Typical for China is the crosstalk show where a pair of comedians entertains the audience with word play.(中国典型的是相声表演,两个喜剧演员通过文字游戏逗乐观众)

10.有时为了使句子平衡,或为了强调表语,常把作表语的形容词,过去分词,不定式或介词短语置于句首,此时需用完全倒装。

Present at the meeting were experts on AIDS

折叠 部分倒装

1) 部分倒装即只把谓语的一部分(如助动词情态动词等)放到主语前,或把句子的强调成分提前。

Nor did he let the disease stop him from living the kind of life he has always dreamt about(疾病没有使他放弃过上梦想中的生活)

2) 以否定词开头的句子要求部分倒装。注意下列句子中助动词或情态动词提前、甚至补充助动词的用法: 例:Not until yesterday did little John change his mind.(小约翰直到昨天才改变了主意。) In no country other than Britain,it had been said,can one experience four seasons in the course of a single day.(据说除了英国世界上没有哪个国家能让人在一天中感受到四季变化)

3) 以否定副词开头并加状语放在句首的句子要求部分倒装。这些否定副词有barely,hardly,little,seldom,scarcely…… when,never,no sooner…… than,rarely,no more,not nearly,not only等以及only。 Only in the country can you learn the "true English".

4)一些如scarcely……when,no sooner ……than,hardly……when引导的主从复合句主句要求使用过去完成式。 注意:在部分倒装句中,只有助动词、情态动词或连系动词to be可以置于主语之前,其它部分都要置于主语之后。

5)此外,一些介词+no+名词的结构中需要用部分倒装,这些结构包括at no time; by no means; by no manner of means; for no reason; in no case; in/under no circumstances; in no sense; in no way; on no account; on no consideration; at no point例如Under no circumstances should you lend Paul any money. 注意:

a) 如果含有从句时,只要求主句倒装: 例:Only after he had spoken out the word did he realize he had made a big mistake.(只有当他已经说出那个字后才意识到自己犯了个大错误。)

b) 如果上述否定副词出现在强调句型中的前半部分,不用倒装:

例:It was not until he went abroad that he knew the truth of the fact.(直到他出国以后才了解到事实真相。)

c) 如果hardly,scarcely后面接的是any,ever,at all时,意义类似almost no/ not/ never(几乎不、从不),则无须倒装。

例:Hardly any people invited went there.(几乎没有什么受到邀请的人去那里了。)

6) 由no matter how,however和how引导的状语从句要求部分倒装,因为形容词或副词通常紧跟在这三个引导词后面,然后才是主语谓语,形成形式上的部分倒装句:

例:I know nothing about this river,neither how long,how wide nor how deep it is.(我一点也不了解这条河,不知道它有多长,多宽或多深。)

7) 由as引导的部分倒装句:

a) 当as作为比较意义时,即用于as + adj./ adv. + as结构中时,如果把第一个as省略掉,就形成部分倒装句

例:Cautious as the rest of her family (was),she didn't seem willing to give an immediate reply to my question.(正如她家里人一样谨慎小心,她似乎不愿意立即回答我的问题。)

She charged the stairs,quick as a rabbit (ran).(她跑上楼去,跑得象兔子那么快!)

b) 当 as引导让步状语时,和although,though一样,当用作"尽管"之义时,可以用于部分倒装句。

Hard as he worked,he did not pass the exam.(虽然他很用功,但他还是没及格)

c) 表示原因时,为了强调起见,也可以倒装。

例:Tired as he was,we decided not to disturb him.(因为他太累了,我们决定不打扰他。)

d) 等于so时,意义是"也,也是"

例:She worked hard,so/ as did her husband. (她工作很努力,她的丈夫工作也很努力。)

so,neither,nor倒装

除了构成上述倒装句以外,还可以取代上文出现的名词、形容词甚至整句话,构成完全倒装句或部分倒装句。但这两种倒装的意义不同。

a) 当so表示"也,相同,那样"时,通常表示对前一句肯定句的赞同、一致内容,要求使用完全倒装句:

He promised to finish my homework,so did I.

b) so /such ……that句型可以构成部分倒装句,表示强调so /such和that之间的部分:

例:So selfish was she that everyone avoid talking with her.

c)也存在such+be+主语的情况用以强调,例如Such was Albert Einstein,a simple man of great achievements.(阿尔伯特?爱因斯坦是一个有伟大成就的普通人)

d) neither和nor共有4种倒装形式,其含义分别为:

1) 完全倒装时:表示"也不",和上文a)用法正好相反,表示对前一句否定句的赞同或一致内容。

例:You don't know what to do now,neither/ nor do I .(你不知道现在该做什么,我也不知道。)

2) 和其它否定副词连用,表示"也(不)",也要求用完全倒装句:

例:The besieged enemy could not advance,nor / neither could they retreat.(被包围的敌人既不能进,也不能退。)(应该是部分倒装-这里不应该是"retreat could they"。括号内此段可删除)

注意:若把这句话改成:"The besieged enemy could neither advance nor retreat.(被包围的敌人既不能进,也不能退。)"就不必倒装。

She never laughed,nor did she ever lose her temper.

3) 用在肯定句里,构成一般否定倒装:

例:All that is true,nor must we forget it.(那全都是真的,我们可不能忘记。)

部分倒装作用

有承上启下作用,表示同意和赞同:

例:A: I couldn't do anything for her.(我帮不了她。)

B: Nor you could,but you might have got somebody to help her.(你是不能帮她,但你本可以找人帮她的。)

2) 在进行比较的句子里,如果主语不是代词时,可以倒装:

例:America consumes more energy than did our country.(美国消耗的能源比我们国家多。)

3)在某些表示祝愿的句型中要求倒装。如May you happy.

4)在文学作品中常出现倒装,有些是由于语法习惯,有些是为了简单的修辞,如Not even one cloud will I bring away(不带走一片云彩).

不用倒装的地方

注:如果only后面的词组不是状语,则不用倒装.

Only Wang Ling knows this .

如果直接引语后注明引语是什么人说的,而且主语是名词时,用倒装结构;主语是代词时,一般不用倒装。

" Let's go," said the man .

折叠 分类

there be结构

在"there be"(或there + appear to be,come,exist,happen to be,lie,live,occur,remain,seem,seem to be,stand,used to be) 雪结构中,倒装形式为完全倒装。如:

There were many students in the reading room in this evening.

今晚阅览室里有许多学生。

There is a TV set,a stereo system and a number of chairs in the sitting room.

客厅里有一台电视机,一套组合音响和一些椅子。

here,there,now,then等引起的倒装

在以here,there,now,then等简短副词引起的句子中(前三个须用一般现在时),动词往往是be,come,go等时, 这类句子大多带有引起注意的含义。如:

Here comes the bus.

公共汽车来了。

Here is the letter you have been looking forward to.

你久盼的信在这儿。

但要注意:如果主语人称代词,则不用倒装。如:

Here they are. 他们在这儿。

省略if的非真实条件状语从句中的倒装

虚拟结构中的条件从句省去if时,were,had,should须移至主语之前。如:

Had you worked harder at college,you would have got better job.

如果你在大学期间读书用功些,现在就会找到一份更好的工作。

Were he better qualified,he would apply for the position.

要是他的条件再好些,他就申请这个职位。

what,how引起的倒装

以What,how开头的感叹句(表语或宾语提前)。如:

What beautiful weather (it is)!

多好的天气啊!(表语提前)

What a lovely picture he painted!

他画了一张多好的画啊!(宾语提前)

疑问词或连接词引起的倒装

在疑问词或连接词whether等引起的从句中。如:

Whatever you may say,I won't go there.

无论你怎样说,我都不会去那儿。(状语从句中宾语提前)

What book he wants is not clear.

他要什么书还不清楚。(主语从句中宾语提前)

否定词位于句首时引起的倒装

(1). never,seldom,hardly,little,few等引起的倒装

否定词never,seldom,rarely,hardly,barely,scarcely,little,few等位于句首时所引起的倒装句通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

Never shall I forget the days when you were with us.

我绝对不会忘记你和我们在一起的日子。。

(2). nowhere,no longer,no more等引起的倒装

nowhere(无处),no longer(不再),no more(也不)等否定词位于句首时所引起的倒装句通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式:

No longer was he in charge of this work.

他不再负责这项工作了。

(3). not until,not a,not in the least等引起的倒装

not until(直到……才),not a(一个……也没有),not in the least(一点儿也不),not for a minute/moment(一点儿也不)等位于句首时,通常引起倒装(not a之后的名词作主语时除外),其形式通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

Not until all the demands had been turned down did the workers decide to go on strike.

一直到所有的要求遭到拒绝之后,工人们才决定罢工。

Not once did he talk to me.

他一次也没有和我谈过。

(4). under no circumstances,by no means,in no way等引起的倒装

in/under no circumstances(无论如何不),by no means (决不),in no case (无论如何不),in no way (决不),on no account (决不可),on no condition(决不)等短语位于句首时所引起的倒装句通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

In no case must force be resorted to.

决不准许诉诸武力

By no means is it true that all English people know their own language well.

并非所有的英国人都通晓该国语。

关联连词位于句首时引起的倒装

(1). not only...but also引起的倒装

not only...but also位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时形式或一般过去时形式,则为完全倒装形式。如:Not only should we not be afraid of difficulties,but also we should try our best to overcome them.

我们不仅应该不怕困难,而且应该尽最大努力去克服它们。

(2). neither...nor引起的倒装

neither...nor位于句首引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

Neither Peter wanted the responsibility,nor did his wife.

彼得不想担此责任,他妻子也不想担此责任。

(3). hardly...when/no sooner...than引起的倒装

hardly/scarcely/barely...when或no

sooner...than位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

Hardly had he arrived when/No sooner had he arrived than he was asked to leave again.

他刚到就又被请走了。

(4). so...that引起的倒装

so...that位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

So angry was he (He so angry) that he couldn't speak.

他如此愤怒,以致说不出话来。

(5). such...that引起的倒装

such...that位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

Such was the force of the explosion that all the windows were broken.

爆炸的威力如此之大,以致所有的窗户都被震破了。

only引起的倒装

当副词only位于句首并修饰状语宾语时,引起句子的倒装,其形式通常为部分倒装,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装。如:

Only in this way can you solve this problem.

只有用这种方法,你才可以解决这个问题。

Only yesterday did I finish this the book.

到昨天我才读完那本书。

表语位于句首时所引起的倒装

当作表语的形容词、副词、介词短语等位于句首时,常常引起倒装,其形式为完全倒装:

Aristotle says,"Plato is dear to me,but dearer still is truth."

亚里斯多德说,"吾爱柏拉图,但更爱真理。"

Present at the meeting were Professor Smith,Professor Brown,Sir Hugh and many other celebrities.

到会的有史密斯教授、勃朗教授、休爵士以及许多其他知名人士。

状语位于句首时所引起的倒装

(1). 当位于句首的状语是一些表示地点的介词短语或表示运动方向的副词(如away,back,down,in,off,out,up)时,常常引起倒装,其形式为全部倒装。如:

Away went the runners.

赛跑手们刷地跑开了。

Down came the rain.

雨哗地落下来了。

(2).介词短语作地点状语,放在句首,后面跟的是不及物动词be,come,sit live,stand,lie,exist等时常常引起倒装,其形式为全部倒装。如:

Next to the table is a chair.

桌旁有把椅子。

At the South Pole lies Antarctica,the coldest and most desolate region on earth.

南极洲位于南极,它是地球上最寒冷和最荒凉的地区。

状语从句中的倒装

(1).让步状语从句中的倒装

as引导的让步状语从句中的倒装:

在as引导的让步状语从句中,位于句首的可以是形容词、名词、副词,还可以是谓语动词的一部分,从而形成从句的部分倒装。如:

Tired as he was,he continued the work.

虽然他累了,但是仍然继续工作。

(2).方式状语从句中的倒装

as引导的方式状语从句一般为正常语序,但是,如果主语谓语长,可将谓语动词置于主语之前,形成完全倒装。如:

He believed,as did all his family,that the king was the supreme lord.

他和他全家人一样,都认为国王是至高无上的君主。

(3).比较状语从句的倒装

than引导的比较状语从句中的倒装:

由than引导的比较状语从句一般为正常语序。但是,如果主语较长,可将谓语动词置于主语之前,形成完全倒装:

Western Nebraska generally receives less snow than does eastern Nebraska.

内布拉斯加西部地区的降雪通常比东部地区少。

the more...,the more...结构中的倒装

在以the more..., the more...引导的倒装结构中,采用部分倒装;如果主句的主语较长,可将谓语动词置于主语之前,形成完全倒装。如:

The more books you read(宾语提前),the wider your knowledge is(表语提前).

书读得越多,知识就越渊博。

折叠 特殊句型

用于有直接引语的句型中

在直接引语之后,"主语+ say/ ask之类的动词"可以用正语序,也可以倒装,在书面语中常用全部倒装。如:

--"What do you mean?" asked Henry. (or:…Henry asked.)

--"Perhaps he isn't a bad sort of chap after all," remarked Dave.

--"I am aware of that," replied the Englishman.

--"Please go away," said one child. " And don't come back," pleaded another.

但是,主语是代词时不用倒装。请比较:

--"What do you mean?" he asked.

--"Who's paying?" shouted the fat man at the corner. "You are," I answered.

用于表示祝愿/意愿的句型

这种祈求性虚拟语气一般只用于几种相当固定的说法中。如:

--Long live the People's Republic of China!

--Far be it from me to spoil the fun.

"may +主语+谓语"这种结构表示一种愿望或诅咒。

--May you live a long and happy life!

--May the best man win!

--May he never set foot in this house again!

--May you break your neck!

用于 "so…that…"句型中

把so置于句首的情形下,需要部分倒装。如:

--So absurd did he look that everyone stared at him.

--So suspicious did he become that…

--So vigorously did he protest that the authorities reconsidered his case.

用于as之后,表示状态和相似

倒装在文学体裁中有时出现在as之后,例如:

--She traveled a great deal,as did most of her friends.

--The present owner is a keen art collector,as were several of her ancestors.

--She looks forward,as does her secretary,to the completion of the building.

在条件和让步分句中

a. 用于条件句

表达虚拟的if从句(非真实条件从句)中的if可以省略,句子呈现倒装。例如:

--Were I Tom I would refuse. (=If I were Tom…)

--Had I known what was going to happen,I would never have left her alone. (=If I had known …)

--Should you change your mind,no one would blame you. (= If you should change…)

b. 用于以as,though引导的表达让步的从句

在这样的分句中,句子部分倒装。如果是though作引导词,句子可以用倒装也可以不用倒装,而如果是as为引导词,则一定要用倒装。如:

--Eloquent though/as she was,she could not persuade them. (or: Though she was eloquent…)

--Child though Tom was then,he had to earn his living. (= Though Tom was a child then…)

--Change your mind as you will,you will gain no additional support.

另外,that也可以象as,though一样用于倒装方式表示让步。如:

--Fool that he was,he managed to evade his pursuers. (= Even though he was a fool…)

--Poor that they were,they gave money to charity. (= Even though they were poor…)

用于感叹句

感叹句通常采用正语序,即主语在前,谓语在后。但有时感叹句采用的却是疑问句的形式。尤其是在美国英语中,感叹句常常象普通疑问句。

--Isn't it cold! 真冷!

--Am I fed up! 我腻烦死了!

--Did he look annoyed! 他看来可气恼了!

折叠 副词so

这类倒装主要见于以下两种情形:

1. 当副词so后接形容词或副词位于句首时,其后要用部分倒装。如:

So cold was the weather that we had to stay at home. 天气太冷,我们只好呆在家里。

So fast does light travel that we can hardly imagine its speed. 光速很快,我们几乎没法想象它的速度。

So sudden was the attack that we had no time to escape. 袭击来得非常突然,我们来不及逃跑。

2. 当要表示前面提出的某一肯定的情况也同样适合于后者,通常就要用"So+助动词+主语"这种倒装结构。如:

You are young and so am I. 你年轻,我也年轻。

She likes music and so do I. 她喜欢音乐,我也喜欢。

If he can do it,so can I. 要是他能做此事,我也能。

【典型考题】(答案分别为BBA)

1. So difficult _________ it to work out the problem that I decided to ask Tom for advice.

A. I did find B. did I find C. I have found D. have I found

2. _________ about wild plants that they decided to make a trip to Madagascar for further research.

A. so curious the couple was B. So curious were the couple

C. How curious the couple were D. The couple was such curious

3. -It's burning hot today,isn't it?-Yes. _________ yesterday.

A. So was it B. So it was C. So it is D. So is it

(1) 若前面提出某一否定的情况,要表示后者也属于同样的否定情况,则应将其中的so改为neither或nor。如:

You aren't young and neither am I. 你不年轻,我也不年轻。

She hasn't read it and nor have I. 她没有读它,我也没有读。

请看考题(答案选D):

Mary never does any reading in the evening,_________.

A. so does John B. John does too

C. John doesn't too D. nor does John

(2) 注意"So+助动词+主语"与表示强调或同意的"So+主语+助动词"的区别。如:

"It was cold yesterday." "So it was." "昨天很冷。""的确很冷。"

请看考题(答案分别为CD):

1. - Maggie had a wonderful time at the party. -_________,and so did I.

A. So she had B. So had she C. So she did D. So did she

2.-Father,you promised! -Well,_________. But it was you who didn't keep your word first.

A. so was I B. so did I C. so I was D. so I did

折叠 高考例题

题目

1. Not until all the fish died in the river __________ how serious the pollution was. (NMET 1995)

A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized

C. the villagers did realize D. didn't the villagers realize

2. The old couple have been married for 40 years and never once __________ with each other. (NMET2003)

A. they had quarrelled B. they have quarrelled

C. have they quarreled D. had they quarreled

3. Little __________ about his own safety,though he was in great danger himself. (1995上海卷)

A. does he care B. did he care

C. he cares D. he cared

4. __________ for the free tickets,I would not have gone to the films so often.(1995上海卷)

A. If it is not B. Were it not

C. Had it not been D. If they were not

5. -David has made great progress recently.

-__________,and __________. (1997上海卷)

A. so he has; so you have B. so he has; so have you

C. so has he; so have you D. so has he; so you have

6. -It was careless of you to have left your clothes outside all night.

-My God! __________. (1999上海卷)

A. So did I B. So I did

C. So were you D. So did you

7. Not a single song __________ at yesterday's party. (2000上海卷)

A. she sang B. sang she

C. did she sing D. she did sing

8. So difficult __________ it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined to learn English. (2001上海卷)

A. I have felt B. have I felt

C. I did feel D. did I feel

9. -You forgot your purse when you went out.

-Good heavens,__________. (2002 上海卷)

A. so did I B. so I did

C. I did so D. I so did

10. Only when your identity has been checked,__________. (2003上海卷)

A. you are allowed in B. you will be allowed in

C. will you allow in D. will you be allowed in

11. I finally got the job I dreamed about. Never in all my life __________ so happy! (2000北京春)

A. did I feel B. I felt

C. I had felt D. had I felt

12. __________ can you expect to get a pay rise. (2000北京春)

A. With hard work B. Although work hard

C. Only with hard work D. Now that he works hard

13. Only when the war was over __________ to his hometown.(2001上海春)

A. did the young soldier return B. the young soldier returned

C. returned the young soldier D. the young soldier did return

14. Not only __________ interested in football but __________ beginning to show an interest in it. (2002上海春)

A. the teacher himself is; all his students are

B. the teacher himself is; are all his students

C. is the teacher himself; are all his students

D. is the teacher himself; all his students are

15.-I would never ever come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible!

-__________. (2004广西卷)

A. Nor am I B. Neither would I

C. Same with me D. So do I

16. Of the making of good books there is no end; neither __________ any end to their influence man's lives. (2004广东卷)

A. there is B. there are

C. is there D. are there

答案与解析

1. A。以 not until 开头的句子要用部分倒装; 是一般过去时,在主语前要加did,谓语动词用原形。句意为:直到河里的鱼全死了村民们才认识到污染的严重性。

2. C。由否定意义的词 never once 开头,句子用部分倒装。前一并列分句已经提示要用现在完成时态

3. B。以 little,never,seldom,hardly 等含否定意义的词开头的句子要用部分倒装; 后文表明要用一般过去时,所以要用 did he care。

4. C。这是与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,后面的主句用would have done,从句用had done过去完成时,在if省略的情况下,则把had提到主语之前。

5. B。表示后者与前者的情况一样就用倒装; 如果是对上文加以肯定或强调"的确是这样"就不用倒装。句意是:"David 最近取得了很大的进步。""是的,他取得了很大的进步,你也取得了很大进步。"

6. B。对别人的话表示赞成"的确如此",不用倒装。句意是:"你太粗心大意了,你的衣服在外面放了一夜。""哎呀!真的是这样。"

7. C。以 not 等否定意义的词开头的句子要用部分倒装。

8. D。以"so + 形容词"开头的句子要用部分倒装; 由 determined 可知用一般过去时。

9. B。句意是:天哪!我确实忘了带钱包。

10. D。only 加状语置于句首,要用部分倒装,排除 A 和 B; 又因 you 与 allow是被动关系,排除 C。

11. D。以 never 开头的句子要部分倒装; 表示过去(got the job )的过去,要用过去完成时

12. C。因题干是部分倒装句,只有答案 C 能构成倒装的条件:only 加状语开头的句子要用部分倒装。

13. A。only 加状语置于句首,要用部分倒装。

14. D。not only…but also连接两个分句时,仅仅是 not only 这一分句要部分倒装,but also 后不倒装, 故选D

15. B。因为表示甲不做某事,乙也同样不做某事,用"neither /nor +特殊词+主语","特殊词"用与前句中的情态动词助动词或be相同,或根据前句的时态,用do,does,did。因前句中有would,后句应重复would,所以选B。

16. C。因为以表示"与…一样不/没有"的否定词neither开头,要用部分倒装,排除A和B; 又根据there be后的名词end是单数,be用is,而不用are,所以只有C正确。

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