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伊利诺伊州(Illinois)位于美国中西部,北接威斯康星州,东北濒密歇根湖,东界印第安纳州,东南邻肯塔基州,西隔密西西比河密苏里州艾奥瓦州相望。面积14.6万平方公里,首府斯普林菲尔德(Springfield)。

该州别名"内陆帝国" (The Inland Empire)或"草原之州" (The Prairie State)。州花是紫罗兰(Native Violet)。州鸟是北美红雀(Cardinal)。州树是白橡(White Oak)。

基本信息

  • 中文名称

    伊利诺伊州

  • 外文名称

    Illinois

  • 别名

    "林肯之地"、草原之州

  • 行政区类别

    联邦州

  • 所属地区

    美国

  • 地理位置

    36°58'N42°30'N87°30'W

  • 面积

    149998 km²

  • 政府驻地

    斯普林菲尔德

  • 人口数量

    1242万人(2000年)

  • 机场

    芝加哥奥黑尔国际机场

  • 建立时间

    1809年2月3日

  • 邮编区码

    IL

  • 特产

    玉米,大豆,生猪,牛,奶,小麦

  • 知名产业

    煤、石油、铅、锌、石灰石玻璃砂

  • 州长

    普利兹克(J.B. Pritzker)

折叠 编辑本段 历史沿革

以印第安人伊利诺伊部落之名命名。1673年,法国探险家路易·若利埃和雅克·马凯特首先探测了密西西比河和伊利诺伊河。1763年,英国取得密西西比河以东地区的统治权。1784年划归美国。1809年2月3日,伊利诺伊领地成立。1818年,伊利诺成为美国第21州。因1834年林肯当选为州议员开始其政治生涯,该州也被称为"林肯之地"。

伊利诺伊州(Illinois, IL)面积15万平方公里(全美排名第25位),人口1283万(2010年人口统计数据),在50州内列第5位,其中2/3居住在芝加哥及其周围地区,白人、黑人和亚太裔分别占总人口的71.5%、14.5%和4.6%,约有华侨华人10余万人。

首府春田市(Springfield),位于伊州中部,人口11万,是伊州的政治中心。芝加哥市(Chicago)是该州最大城市,地处伊州东北角,人口289万,为美国第三大城市和重要的工业、金融、农产品加工和交通中心。城市高层建筑颇具特色,被誉为"世界建筑博物馆"。

伊州2011年GDP6723亿美元,人均GDP52116美元(全美排名第13位)。2011年对外贸易额1870亿美元,占全美外贸总额的5%,其中对华贸易额268.71亿美元,出口额38.97亿美元,进口额229.74亿美元。

伊州是美国传统制造业中心,主要产品为机械设备、农业机械、移动电话、医疗器械及农产品等。2009年《财富》杂志评出的美国500家最大公司中有31家的总部设在伊州,在全美各州中位居第4。经济外向型特征明显,1/7就业人口与出口有关。伊州也是农业大州,有农场7.8万多个,农业人口占全州总人口的2.7%,产值占州年生产总值的2%。

教育、文化和新闻事业发达。共有报纸700多份,其中日报50份,主要有《芝加哥论坛报》和《芝加哥太阳时报》。有50余家电视台,近400家电台。大专院校188所,数量居全美第5位,在校生75万人,其中芝加哥大学和西北大学综合排名位列全美前十位左右。

伊州与辽宁省(1982年)和台湾省(1992年)互为友好省州,芝加哥与沈阳(1985年)和上海(1985年)互为友城。此外,乔利埃特(Joliet)、洛克福特(Rockford)、柏林布鲁克(Bolingbrook)、佩里亚(Peoria)、盖利斯伯格(Galesburg)分别与辽宁省辽阳市、江苏省常州市、河南省许昌市、辽宁省本溪市和安徽省马鞍山市互为友城。

折叠 编辑本段 行政区划

首府是位于伊州中部的春田市,是伊州的政治中心。芝加哥是伊州最大城市,为仅次于纽约和洛杉矶的美国第三大城市。芝加哥及周围6县构成大芝加哥地区。

重要城市:芝加哥、埃文斯顿、埃尔金、奥克朗、乔利矣特、奥罗拉、沃其根、罗克福德迪卡尔布罗克艾兰、盖尔斯堡、皮奥里亚、诺黙尔、厄巴纳-香槟、丹维尓、特雷霍持,印第安纳州、斯普林菲尔德州府、布卢明顿、迪凯持、奥尔顿、东圣路易斯、森特勒利亚、卡本代尔、帕度卡,肯塔基州。

County

FIPS code

County seat

Established

Origin

Etymology

Population

Area

Map

Adams County

001

Quincy

1825

Pike County

John Quincy Adams(1767–1848), sixthPresident of the United States

67,103

857sqmi

(2,220km)

Alexander County

003

Cairo

1819

Union County

William M. Alexander, a settler and state representative in theIllinois General Assembly

8,238

236sqmi

(611km)

Bond County

005

Greenville

1817

Crawford County, Edwards County, and Madison County

Shadrach Bond(1773–1832), FirstGovernor of Illinois

17,768

380sqmi

(984km)

Boone County

007

Belvidere

1837

Winnebago County

Daniel Boone(1734-1820), trailblazer of theWilderness Roadin Kentucky

54,165

281sqmi

(728km)

Brown County

009

Mount Sterling

1839

Schuyler County

Jacob Brown(1775–1828), a successfulAmerican Revolutionarmy officer responsible for Great Lakes defenses

6,937

306sqmi

(793km)

Bureau County

011

Princeton

1837

Putnam County

Pierre de Bureo, Frenchman,North American fur trader

34,978

869sqmi

(2,251km)

Calhoun County

013

Hardin

1825

Pike County

John C. Calhoun(1782–1850),South Carolinasenator and seventhVice President of the United States

5,089

254sqmi

(658km)

Carroll County

015

Mount Carroll

1839

Jo Daviess

Charles Carroll of Carrollton(1737–1832), signed theDeclaration of Independenceon behalf ofMaryland

15,387

444sqmi

(1,150km)

Cass County

017

Virginia

1837

Morgan County

Lewis Cass(1782–1866), second governor ofMichigan Territory, fourteenthUnited States Secretary of War

13,642

376sqmi

(974km)

Champaign County

019

Urbana

1833

Vermilion County

Champaign County, Ohio, which took its name from theFrenchfor "open level country"

201,081

997sqmi

(2,582km)

Christian County

021

Taylorville

1839

Sangamon County

Christian County, Kentucky, which was itself named afterColonel William Christian

34,800

709sqmi

(1,836km)

Clark County

023

Marshall

1819

Crawford County

George Rogers Clark(1752–1818), highest-ranking officer in theNorthwest Territoryduring theAmerican Revolution

16,335

502sqmi

(1,300km)

Clay County

025

Louisville

1824

Wayne, Lawrence, Fayette, and Crawford County

Henry Clay(1777–1852), Kentucky legislator who negotiated theMissouri Compromise

13,815

469sqmi

(1,215km)

Clinton County

027

Carlyle

1824

Washington, Bond, and Fayette County

DeWitt Clinton(1769–1828),Governor of New York, responsible for the construction of theErie Canal

37,762

474sqmi

(1,228km)

Coles County

029

Charleston

1830

Clark and Edgar County

Edward Coles(1786–1868), secondGovernor of Illinois, responsible for the abolition of slavery in Illinois

53,873

508sqmi

(1,316km)

Cook County

031

Chicago

1831

Putnam County

Daniel Pope Cook(1794–1827), politician and firstAttorney General of Illinois

5,194,675

946sqmi

(2,450km)

Crawford County

033

Robinson

1816

Edwards County

William H. Crawford(1772–1834), ninthUnited States Secretary of War, seventhSecretary of the Treasury

19,817

444sqmi

(1,150km)

Cumberland County

035

Toledo

1843

Coles County

Disputed:Cumberland Road, which entered the county;Cumberland, Maryland; orCumberland Riverin Kentucky

11,048

346sqmi

(896km)

DeKalb County

037

Sycamore

1837

Kane County

Johann de Kalb(1721–80), German soldier in theContinental Armywho fought alongsideGilbert du Motier, marquis de Lafayette

105,160

634sqmi

(1,642km)

DeWitt County

039

Clinton

1839

Macon and McLean County

DeWitt Clinton(1769–1828),Governor of New York, responsible for the construction of theErie Canal

16,561

398sqmi

(1,031km)

Douglas County

041

Tuscola

1859

Coles County

Stephen A. Douglas(1813–61), prominent Illinois Democrat whoengaged in debateswithAbraham Lincoln

19,980

417sqmi

(1,080km)

DuPage County

043

Wheaton

1839

Cook County

DuPage River

916,924

334sqmi

(865km)

Edgar County

045

Paris

1823

Clark County

John Edgar(c. 1750–1832), Illinois delegate to theNorthwest Territorylegislature; at time, wealthiest man in Illinois

18,576

624sqmi

(1,616km)

Edwards County

047

Albion

1814

Gallatin County and Madison County

Ninian Edwards(1775–1833), thirdGovernor of the State of Illinoisand only governor of theIllinois Territory

6,721

222sqmi

(575km)

Effingham County

049

Effingham

1831

Fayette and Crawford County

Lord Thomas Effingham, military officer who resigned from theBritish Armyto avoid fighting the American colonies

34,242

479sqmi

(1,241km)

Fayette County

051

Vandalia

1821

Bond, Wayne, Clark, Jefferson, and Crawford County

Marquis de la Fayette(1757–1834), French military officer who was a key factor in theAmericanandFrench Revolutions.

22,140

716sqmi

(1,854km)

Ford County

053

Paxton

1859

Vermilion County

Thomas Ford(1800–50), eighthGovernor of Illinois; served during theIllinois Mormon War

14,081

486sqmi

(1,259km)

Franklin County

055

Benton

1818

White County and Gallatin County

Benjamin Franklin(1706–90), prolific writer, inventor, and politician; key factor in theAmerican Revolution

39,561

412sqmi

(1,067km)

Fulton County

057

Lewistown

1823

Pike County

Robert Fulton(1765–1815), inventor of thesteamboat

37,069

866sqmi

(2,243km)

Gallatin County

059

Shawneetown

1812

Randolph County

Albert Gallatin(1761–1849), fourth and longest-servingUnited States Secretary of the Treasury

5,589

324sqmi

(839km)

Greene County

061

Carrollton

1821

Madison County

Nathanael Greene(1742–86), major general in theContinental Army

13,886

543sqmi

(1,406km)

Grundy County

063

Morris

1841

LaSalle County

Felix Grundy(1777–1840),Tennesseansenator that served as the thirteenthUnited States Attorney General

50,063

420sqmi

(1,088km)

Hamilton County

065

McLeansboro

1821

White County

Alexander Hamilton(1755–1804), firstUnited States Secretary of the Treasury

8,457

435sqmi

(1,127km)

Hancock County

067

Carthage

1825

Adams County

John Hancock(1737–93), first governor of theMassachusetts colonyand president of theSecond Continental Congress

19,104

795sqmi

(2,059km)

Hardin County

069

Elizabethtown

1839

Pope County

Hardin County, Kentucky, which was itself named afterJohn Hardin

4,320

178sqmi

(461km)

Henderson County

071

Oquawka

1841

Warren County

Henderson County, Kentucky, which was itself named afterRichard Henderson

7,331

379sqmi

(982km)

Henry County

073

Cambridge

1825

Fulton County

Patrick Henry(1736-99),American Revolutionary Warfigure and first and sixthGovernor of Virginia

50,486

823sqmi

(2,132km)

Iroquois County

075

Watseka

1833

Vermilion County

IroquoisNative Americans

29,718

1,116sqmi

(2,890km)

Jackson County

077

Murphysboro

1816

Randolph County and Johnson County

Andrew Jackson(1767-1845), seventhPresident of the United States, United States Senator fromTennessee, and general in theWar of 1812

60,218

588sqmi

(1,523km)

Jasper County

079

Newton

1831

Clay and Crawford County

Sgt.William Jasper(c. 1750-79),American Revolutionary Warsoldier popularized byParson Weems

9,698

494sqmi

(1,279km)

Jefferson County

081

Mount Vernon

1819

Edwards and White County

Thomas Jefferson(1743-1826), thirdPresident of the United States, secondVice President of the United States,Governor of Virginia, and one of the foremostFounding Fathers of the United States

38,827

571sqmi

(1,479km)

Jersey County

083

Jerseyville

1839

Greene County

State ofNew Jersey, from which many early settlers hailed

22,985

369sqmi

(956km)

Jo Daviess County

085

Galena

1827

Henry, Mercer, and Putnam County

Joseph Hamilton Daveiss(1774-1811), commander of the Indiana Dragoons at theBattle of Tippecanoe

22,678

601sqmi

(1,557km)

Johnson County

087

Vienna

1812

Randolph County

Richard Mentor Johnson(abt. 1780-1850), ninthVice President of the United Statesand United States Senator formKentucky

12,582

346sqmi

(896km)

Kane County

089

Geneva

1836

LaSalle County

Elias Kane(1794-1835), United States Senator fromIllinois

515,269

521sqmi

(1,349km)

Kankakee County

091

Kankakee

1853

Iroquois and Will County

Kankakee River

113,449

678sqmi

(1,756km)

Kendall County

093

Yorkville

1841

LaSalle and Kane County

Amos Kendall(1789-1869),United States Postmaster Generalunder PresidentsAndrew JacksonandMartin Van Buren

114,736

321sqmi

(831km)

Knox County

095

Galesburg

1825

Fulton County

Gen.Henry Knox(1750-1806),American Revolutionary Wargeneral and firstUnited States Secretary of War

52,919

716sqmi

(1,854km)

Lake County

097

Waukegan

1839

McHenry County

Lake Michigan

703,462

448sqmi

(1,160km)

LaSalle County

099

Ottawa

1831

Putnam and Tazewell County

Sieur de la Salle(1643-87), French explorer of theGreat Lakes.

113,924

1,135sqmi

(2,940km)

Lawrence County

101

Lawrenceville

1821

Crawford and Edwards County

Capt.James Lawrence(1781-1813), commander of theUSSChesapeakein theWar of 1812. Famous for his command "Don't give up the ship!"

16,833

372sqmi

(963km)

Lee County

103

Dixon

1839

Ogle County

"Light Horse"Henry Lee III(1756-1818),American Revolutionary Warofficer and ninthGovernor of Virginia

36,031

725sqmi

(1,878km)

Livingston County

105

Pontiac

1837

LaSalle and McLean County

Edward Livingston(1764-1836), prominent jurist, Congressman fromNew YorkandLouisiana, andU.S. Secretary of Statefrom 1831-33.

38,950

1,044sqmi

(2,704km)

Logan County

107

Lincoln

1839

Sangamon County

John Logan, a country doctor and early settler, and the father ofJohn A. Logan.

30,305

618sqmi

(1,601km)

Macon County

115

Decatur

1829

Shelby County

Nathaniel Macon(1758-1837), sixthSpeaker of the United States House of RepresentativesandUnited States SenatorfromNorth Carolina.

110,768

581sqmi

(1,505km)

Macoupin County

117

Carlinville

1829

Greene County

Native American wordMacoupin, meaningAmerican lotus

47,765

864sqmi

(2,238km)

Madison County

119

Edwardsville

1812

St. Clair County and Randolph County

James Madison(1751-1836), fourthPresident of the United Statesand principal author of theConstitution of the United States.

269,282

725sqmi

(1,878km)

Marion County

121

Salem

1823

Fayette and Jefferson County

Francis Marion(c. 1732-95), general in theAmerican Revolutionary Warknown as "The Swamp Fox"

39,437

572sqmi

(1,481km)

Marshall County

123

Lacon

1839

Putnam County

John Marshall (1755-1835), fourth and longest-servingChief Justice of the United States, wrote opinion inMarbury v. Madisonestablishing the principle ofjudicial review

12,640

386sqmi

(1,000km)

Mason County

125

Havana

1841

Tazewell and Menard County

Named afterMason County, Kentucky, itself named afterGeorge Mason

14,666

539sqmi

(1,396km)

Massac County

127

Metropolis

1843

Pope and Johnson County

Fort Massac, a colonial-era fort on theOhio River

15,429

239sqmi

(619km)

McDonough County

109

Macomb

1826

Schuyler County

CommodoreThomas Macdonough(1783-1825), commander of American naval forces at theBattle of Plattsburgh

32,612

589sqmi

(1,526km)

McHenry County

111

Woodstock

1836

Cook and LaSalle County

MajorWilliam McHenry(c. 1771-1835), officer in during several campaigns againstNative Americansand member of the Illinois legislature

308,760

604sqmi

(1,564km)

McLean County

113

Bloomington

1830

Tazewell County

John McLean(1791-1830),United States RepresentativeandUnited States Senatorfrom Illinois (the latter from 1824-25 and 1829-30)

169,572

1,184sqmi

(3,067km)

Menard County

129

Petersburg

1839

Sangamon County

Pierre Menard(1766-1844), prominent early settler and firstLieutenant Governor of Illinois

12,705

314sqmi

(813km)

Mercer County

131

Aledo

1825

Schuyler County

Hugh Mercer(1726-77), British officer in theSeven Years' Warand general in theContinental Armyduring theAmerican Revolutionary War

16,434

561sqmi

(1,453km)

Monroe County

133

Waterloo

1816

Randolph County and St. Clair County

James Monroe(1758-1831), seventhUnited States Secretary of State, eighthUnited States Secretary of War,Governor of Virginia, and fifthPresident of the United States

32,957

388sqmi

(1,005km)

Montgomery County

135

Hillsboro

1821

Bond and Madison County

Gen.Richard Montgomery(1738-75), brigadier-general in theContinental Armywho led the unsuccessfulinvasion of Canada

30,104

704sqmi

(1,823km)

Morgan County

137

Jacksonville

1823

Sangamon County

Gen.Daniel Morgan(1736-1802), successful tactician in theAmerican Revolutionary Warand laterUnited States RepresentativefromVirginia

35,547

569sqmi

(1,474km)

Moultrie County

139

Sullivan

1843

Shelby and Macon County

Gen.William Moultrie(1730-1805),American Revolutionary Wargeneral andGovernor of South Carolina

14,846

336sqmi

(870km)

Ogle County

141

Oregon

1836

Jo Daviess

Joseph Ogle(1737-1821), early settler in southwest Illinois, who helped found the firstMethodistchurch in Illinois

53,497

759sqmi

(1,966km)

Peoria County

143

Peoria

1825

Fulton County

ThePeoriaNative American tribe

186,494

620sqmi

(1,606km)

Perry County

145

Pinckneyville

1827

Randolph and Jackson County

CommodoreOliver Hazard Perry(1785-1819), American naval officer who led the victorious American forces at theBattle of Lake Erie

22,350

441sqmi

(1,142km)

Piatt County

147

Monticello

1841

DeWitt and Macon County

John Piatt, the patriarch of a prominent settler family in the early history of the county

16,729

440sqmi

(1,140km)

Pike County

149

Pittsfield

1821

Madison, Bond, and Clark County

Zebulon Pike(1779-1813), early explorer of theAmerican Southwest, namesake ofPikes Peak

16,430

830sqmi

(2,150km)

Pope County

151

Golconda

1816

Gallatin and Johnson County

Nathaniel Pope(1784-1850), early Delegate fromIllinois Territoryto Congress and judge on theUnited States District Court for the District of Illinois

4,470

371sqmi

(961km)

Pulaski County

153

Mound City

1843

Alexander and Johnson County

Gen.Casimir Pulaski(1745-79),Polish Americangeneral of cavalry in theAmerican Revolutionary War

6,161

201sqmi

(521km)

Putnam County

155

Hennepin

1825

Fulton County

Gen.Israel Putnam(1718-90), commander of American forces at theBattle of Bunker Hill

6,006

160sqmi

(414km)

Randolph County

157

Chester

1795

St. Clair County

Edmund Randolph(1753-1813), firstAttorney General of the United States, and brieflyUnited States Secretary of State

33,476

578sqmi

(1,497km)

Richland County

159

Olney

1841

Clay and Lawrence County

Richland County, Ohio, itself named for its richsoil

16,233

360sqmi

(932km)

Rock Island County

161

Rock Island

1831

Jo Daviess County

Rock Island

147,546

427sqmi

(1,106km)

Saline County

165

Harrisburg

1847

Gallatin County

Salt springs within the county

24,913

383sqmi

(992km)

Sangamon County

167

Springfield

1821

Madison and Bond County

Sangamon River

197,465

868sqmi

(2,248km)

Schuyler County

169

Rushville

1825

Pike and Fulton County

Gen.Philip Schuyler(1733-1804),American Revolutionary Wargeneral andUnited States SenatorfromNew York

7,544

437sqmi

(1,132km)

Scott County

171

Winchester

1839

Morgan County

Scott County, Kentucky, itself named afterCharles Scott

5,355

251sqmi

(650km)

Shelby County

173

Shelbyville

1827

Fayette County

Isaac Shelby(1750-1826), soldier in theAmerican Revolutionary WarandWar of 1812, and first and fifthGovernor of Kentucky

22,363

759sqmi

(1,966km)

St. Clair County

163

Belleville

1790

original two counties

Arthur St. Clair(1737-1818), major general in theAmerican Revolutionary Warand first Governor of theNorthwest Territory

270,056

664sqmi

(1,720km)

Stark County

175

Toulon

1839

Knox and Putnam County

Gen.John Stark(1728-1822), general in theAmerican Revolutionary War, called the "Hero ofBennington"

5,994

288sqmi

(746km)

Stephenson County

177

Freeport

1837

Jo Daviess and Winnebago County

Benjamin Stephenson(1769-1822), representative ofIllinois Territoryin theUnited States Congressfrom 1814 to 1816

47,711

564sqmi

(1,461km)

Tazewell County

179

Pekin

1827

Sangamon County

Littleton Waller Tazewell(1774-1860), United States Senator from (and later governor of)Virginia

135,394

649sqmi

(1,681km)

Union County

181

Jonesboro

1818

Johnson County

The federal union of the states

17,808

416sqmi

(1,077km)

Vermilion County

183

Danville

1826

Edgar County

TheVermilion River

81,625

899sqmi

(2,328km)

Wabash County

185

Mount Carmel

1824

Edwards County

TheWabash River

11,947

224sqmi

(580km)

Warren County

187

Monmouth

1825

Schuyler County

Joseph Warren(1741-75), played a role inAmerican Patriotmovements, a prominent early fatality in theAmerican Revolutionary War

17,707

543sqmi

(1,406km)

Washington County

189

Nashville

1818

St. Clair County

George Washington(1732-99), commander-in-chief of American forces in theAmerican Revolutionary Warand firstPresident of the United States

14,716

563sqmi

(1,458km)

Wayne County

191

Fairfield

1819

Edwards County

Gen. "Mad"Anthony Wayne(1745-96),major generalin the United States Army in theAmerican Revolutionary Warand theNorthwest Indian War

16,760

714sqmi

(1,849km)

White County

193

Carmi

1815

Gallatin County

Isaac White(1776-1811), resident of Illinois who enlisted in the Indiana militia and was killed at theBattle of Tippecanoe

14,665

495sqmi

(1,282km)

Whiteside County

195

Morrison

1836

Jo Daviess and Henry County

Samuel Whiteside(1783-1868), state legislator and militia leader

58,498

685sqmi

(1,774km)

Will County

197

Joliet

1836

Cook and Iroquois County

Conrad Will(1779-1835),physician, local businessman and longtime member of the state legislature

677,560

837sqmi

(2,168km)

Williamson County

199

Marion

1839

Franklin County

Hugh Williamson(1735-1819), delegate fromNorth Carolinato thePhiladelphia Convention

66,357

424sqmi

(1,098km)

Winnebago County

201

Rockford

1836

Jo Daviess

WinnebagoNative Americans

295,266

514sqmi

(1,331km)

Woodford County

203

Eureka

1841

Tazewell and McLean County

Gen.William Woodford(1734-80), brigadier general in theAmerican Revolutionary Warwho died while a British prisoner

38,664

528sqmi

(1,368km)

折叠 编辑本段 地理环境

折叠 地貌

伊利诺伊州地势平坦,平均海拔182米,自北向南倾斜。西北部较高,有起伏平缓的丘陵。全境最高点海拔378米,为西北角有查尔斯丘。北部和中部的黑土非常肥沃,为世界上最佳耕地之一。地表有厚层冰川沉积,叫做冰碛层。第四纪内,北美洲北部及中部出现大陆冰川。冰川向南推进时,把全州大部分地面蚀平,好似平锅的锅底。冰川融化后消失,把冰内夹带的泥砂石块堆积在地面上,成为冰碛物,似一张圆饼摊在锅底的平面上。冰川避开了州西北角及州境南端两个丘陵区,这一带未遭受大陆冰川的破坏。南部马里恩附近小丘区是大陆冰川南进的限界。南端河岸港开罗以南未受冰川的刨蚀。除上述西北角及南端大丘陵区外,都遭受大陆冰川覆盖数千年到数万年之久。

折叠 气候

伊利诺伊州属温带气候,冬季寒冷多雪,夏炎热。冬季平均气温,北部为-6℃,南部为3℃;夏季平均气温分别为21和25℃。年平均降水,北部为800~1200毫米,南部为1200~1600毫米。南部生长期为210天,最北部仅有160天。

折叠 编辑本段 自然资源

伊利诺伊州主要矿产有煤、石油、、锌、石灰石和玻璃砂。煤产量居全国第四位,石油居第八位。煤炭主要分布于州的中部和南部,石油分布于南部。其他矿产资源有铅、锌、石灰石和玻璃砂等。

折叠 编辑本段 人口民族

伊利诺伊州人口约1291万,位居全美第5,白人、黑人、拉美裔及亚太裔分别占总人口的71.4%、 14.6%、14.9%和4.3%,约有华侨华人10余万人。

折叠 编辑本段 经济概况

折叠 农业经济

该州是全国主要的农业州之一。全州80%的土地为农业用地。每个农户平均耕种140公顷(约2100亩)农田。大豆产量居全国首位;玉米产量有时占第一位,有时居第二位;猪肉和牛肉产量亦均名列前茅。

折叠 工业经济

伊利诺伊工业主要集中在芝加哥。由于靠近铁矿产地,交通方便,钢铁工业发展迅速,芝加哥已取代钢都匹兹堡成为全国最大的钢铁工业中心。农业机械、建筑机械和金属制品产量居各州之冠;电机产量名列第三;汽车工业也很重要,有55万职工从事机动车辆的制造和装配。食品工业仅次于加利福尼亚州。印刷业和出版业仅次于纽约州,居全国第二位。

折叠 服务业

伊州是美国传统制造业中心,也是美国交通运输及物流配送中心。建筑机械、农业器具、通讯设备、生物技术及金融、保险、咨询和批发零售等服务业发达。全州有2300多家商业银行,1000家储蓄银行,2000多家保险机构,并有11200多个金融从业公司。芝加哥商业交易所(集团)是世界最大的期货交易所。

折叠 政府财政

二十一世纪初以来,评级机构一直在下调伊利诺伊州的信用评级,伊利诺伊州欠下了巨额养老金债务,此外还积欠了150亿美元的未付账单,且在州议员2015年听凭一项上调所得税的临时政策到期终止后,该州的财政收入出现下降。2017年6月,评级机构将该州的评级降至只比"垃圾"级高一级的水平。

折叠 编辑本段 社会事业

折叠 教育事业

该州大专院校188所,数量居全美第5位,在校生75万人,每百人中就有6.4个大学生。著名的高等学府有芝加哥大学(1891年)、西北大学(1851年)、伊利诺伊大学。

主要大学:西北大学、芝加哥大学、伊利诺大学厄巴纳-香槟分校、伊利诺伊州立大学、伊利诺大学芝加哥分校、南伊利诺伊大学、伊利诺理工学院、罗耀拉大学、帝波大学、芝加哥艺术学院。

折叠 新闻事业

该州共有报纸700多份,其中日报50份,主要有《芝加哥论坛报》和《芝加哥太阳时报》。有50余家电视台,近400家电台。

折叠 友好城市

伊州与辽宁省(1982年)和台湾省(1992年)互为友好省州,芝加哥与沈阳(1985年)和上海(1985年)互为友城。此外,乔利埃特(Joliet)、洛克福特(Rockford)、柏林布鲁克(Bolingbrook)、佩里亚(Peoria)、盖利斯伯格(Galesburg)分别与辽宁省辽阳市、江苏省常州市、河南省许昌市、辽宁省本溪市和安徽省马鞍山市互为友城。

折叠 编辑本段 交通运输

伊利诺伊州被认为是美国的交通中心。芝加哥是世界最大的铁路枢纽,有30条铁路干线及其支线汇集于此。全州有铁路37000公里,居全国第二位。1848年开凿伊利诺伊-密歇根运河以后,沟通了东北部的圣劳伦斯水道和西部的密西西比水道,使本州与其他各州之间的水运更加便利。州内有几十个机场,最大的是芝加哥的奥黑尔菲尔德国际机场和米德韦机场

重要机场:芝加哥欧海尔国际机场、芝加哥中途国际机场

重要高速公路:55号州际公路、57号州际公路、70号州际公路、72号州际公路、74号州际公路、80号州际公路、88号州际公路(西段)、90号州际公路、94号州际公路、290号州际公路、294号州际公路、355号州际公路。

折叠 编辑本段 风俗民情

折叠 宗教

宗教上,伊利诺州不像其它中西部的州﹙新教徒占有极大比例﹚,而仅有半数的居民是新教徒,罗马天主教的比例则大约为三分之一,多分布在芝加哥都会区周围。整个人口信仰比例为:

51%新教徒﹙Protestant﹚

33% 罗马天主教徒Roman Catholic

1% 其他基督教派的教徒 Other Christian

3% 其他宗教教徒Other Religions

8% 无信仰者 Non-Religious

伊利诺州前三大新教徒是:浸礼会﹙Baptist:15%﹚、路德会(Lutheran:5%)、卫理公会﹙Methodist:8%﹚。

折叠 人文景点

芝加哥美术馆(Art Institute of Chicago)位于伊利诺伊州芝加哥市,创建于1891年,因荟萃世界各地艺术珍品而负有盛名,它既是世界上最古老的美术展览馆之一,也是当今美国三大美术馆之一。

布鲁克菲尔德动物园(Brookfield Zoo)正式名称芝加哥动物园(Chicago Zoological Park)。建于1934年,以其大规模的开放式场地出名。

菲尔德自然史博物馆(The Field Museum of Natural History)最早建立于1893年9月,至今该馆已收集有两千多万种生物及人文标本,每年组织有大量的展览、研究和教育项目,馆内的自然史图书馆藏书达25万册。

折叠 编辑本段 著名人物

作家卡尔·山柏格(Carl Sandburg)、作家恩尼斯特·海明威(Ernest Hemingway)、广播电视喜剧演员克·班尼(Jack Benny)、女诗人关朵琳·布鲁克丝(GwendolynBrooks)、南京大屠杀时保护平民的美国传教士明妮·魏特琳 、创意动画家/迪士尼乐园创办人华德·迪士尼(Walt Disney)、以及美国第四十任总统隆纳·雷根(Ronald Reagan)。

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