2020-09-25 11:20:34

并列结构 免费编辑 添加义项名

B 添加义项
?
义项指多义词的不同概念,如李娜的义项:网球运动员、歌手等;非诚勿扰的义项:冯小刚执导电影、江苏卫视交友节目等。 查看详细规范>>
所属类别 :
词条暂无分类
编辑分类

如果两句话所传递的信息在重要性上差不多是相等的,就可以把它们一前一后地排列起来,或者用并列连词把它们连接起来,称为并列结构。并列结构可以是词的并列,可以是词组的并列,也可以是分句的并列。并列结构既可以是双项并列,也可以是多项并列。

基本信息

  • 中文名称

    并列结构

  • 从属

    表态手段

折叠 编辑本段 并列结构介绍

并列(coordination)与从属(subordination)是两种重要的表态手段,它们能够把两个或两个以上的信息连接起来表示出它们之间的相互关系,是同等的重要.还是有主次之分。比如这里有两句活:

Tom was doing his homework.

Jim was sleeping.

如果说话人认为这两句话所传递的信息在重要性上差不多是相等的,就可以把它们一前一后地排列起来,或者用并列连词把它们连接起来:

Tom was doing his homework. Jim was deeping

Tom was doing his homework,and Jim was sIeeping

如果在说话人看来,这两句话并非向等重要,便可以通过从属手段位次要的信息川现在从威分句中,而使主要的信息小现在主句中:

While Tom was doing his homework,Jim was sIeeping.

或者:

while Jim was sleeping,Tom was doing his homework.

在上述第一个复杂句中,说话人把jim was sleeping放在主导的地位,而在第二个复杂句中,则是把Tom was doing his homework

放在主导的地位。这样一来,原来的两句句话在语义上便有主次之分了。由此可见,并列与从属是在表意中权衡轻重,调节说话口气的语法手段之一。

折叠 编辑本段 语法特征

并列结构可以是词和词的并列,可以是的组和词组的并列,也可以是分句和分句的并列。就并列项目的多少来说,并列结构既可以是双项并列,也可以是多项并列。

I) 双项并列

双项并列指两个词、两个词组或者两个分句的并列,"的并列结构形式。例如:

He is an intelligent and hardworking young man.

That was an exciting but dangerous trip.

Both the parents and their children want to live in the country(住在乡下).

My father is old,but he is still in good health.

He won't live in the city,nor will his wife.

The man was with a wife but without children.

由上述诸例可以看出,并列结构通常都带有并列连词(coordination),并列连词所连接的两个项目通常是词类相同或者结构相同,句法功能也相同。 在上述第一例中出and连接的两个项目都是形容词,而且都是作young man的前置修饰话,这就是说并列项目都是在同一语法层次上。反之,如果两个项目的词类不同(比如一个是形容词,一个是名词),或者句法功能不向(比如一个是作名词修饰语,一个是作补语),那就不可能构成并列关系。如果词类相问,句法功能也相同,可是语法层次不同,那也不可能并列起来。例如;

a hardworking young man

a well-known medical school

在上述第一例中hardworking和youn 虽然都是形容词作名词的前置修饰语,但youg 修饰man,而hardworking则修饰yougman,因此hardworking和young不在同一层次上,从而不是并列关系。同样地,在上述第二例中medical修饰school,而well-known则是修饰础medical school,因此也不是并列关系。 2)多项并列 多项并列指由三个或三个以上项目构成的并列结构。在多项并列结构中,通常是在前面的每个并列项目之后用逗号,在最后一个并列项目之前用连词。例如:

There is a bed, a wardrobe, a desk, and several chairs in the room.

Among the guests were the Hwiers,the Browns, Professor Lee,and some relatives of hers.

在多项并列结构中,为了达到一定的修辞目的也可以统统用逗号,不用连词;或者统统用连词,不用逗号。例如:

Our train qujckIy passed Suzhow,Wuxi,Zhangzhou, and arrived at Nanjing about noon time.

在上述一例中,多项并列结构统统用逗号,给人以节奏明快的感觉。

折叠 编辑本段 语法结构

英语的并列连词就结构形式来说分为单词并列连词(SINGLE-WORD C00RDINATOR),如and,or but:nor yet so; 关联并列连词(CORRELATIVE C00RDINATOR),如both…and,not only…but(also),either...or,neither…nor,not…but等。此外还有连词for是介乎并列连河和从属连词之间的,本书把它也放在并列连词中处理。

从语义上划分,英语的并列连词义可分为表示语义增进的并列表示因果的并列连词。

I.表示语义增进的并列连词

表示语义增进的并列连词以and为代表,not only..but(aIso),nor,neither..nor等。

语义增进是连词and所表示的主要意义。

He bought a table and two chairs.

I am interested jn chemitry(化学)and in mathematics(数学)。 John did the work,and he did it wel (约翰做了这件事.而且 做得好。)

You doubt his capacity,and with reson (你怀疑他的能力, 而 且有理由怀疑、)

表示语义增进,and有时还可出现了句首,这主要用于非正式语体。

例如:

Well he doesn't have a fever .And his pulse is fine.

"Just a litt[e cold,Chartie,"say the doctor"Better stay inside

today, Charlie.And take it easy."

"Did you serve in either or my last two campaigns?"

除表尔语义增进,连词and还可用于其他意义。比如表示对比和转折: He was city-bred(在城里长大的),and she was country-bred(在 乡间氏大的)-She was rough(粗鲁),and he was gentle(文雅). He is Jack of a11 trades and masterr of none. (他样样刽5会, 门 门不箱。)

There is all talk and no action. (尽是空谈,没有行动.)

He is so rich and lives like a beggar (他北常富有,而生活却象乞丐一般。)

又例如麦不条件:

Tell him anything,and he just looks at you blankly

(=If you tell him anything,he just looks at you bIankly.)

Give me some more time,and I will show you how it can be done.

Think it over again and you'll find a way out

both...and是对加and意义的强化。例如:

Both Mary and her mother were not there

She is weIl known both for her kindness and for her intelligence.

要注意,both...and在用法上也不完全与and相同。比如我们可以说:

Mary and her mother were not there.

却通常不说:*Both Mary and her mother were not there.而应说;

Neither Mary nor her mother was there.

又例如and可用来连接两个分句,而both...and不可以.比如我们可以说:

Mary went marketing,and her mother did the cooking.

却不可以说:

*Both Mary went marketing, and her mother did the cooking.

再者,and可以连接两个以上的项目,而both…and却只限于两

项。比如我们可以说:

He can sing and dance and play the violin.

He can both sing and dance.

却和可以说:

*He can both sing and dance and pIay the vioIin.

not only...but(aIso)与both..and意义相近,但侧重在后一并列成

分。例如:

NOt only the mother but also the children are sick.

She can not only speak English but also write in it.

与both…and不同,not only...but(also)可用来连接两个分句,作这种用法时,not only所引导的分句需用倒装词序。例如:

Not only was everything he had taken away from him,but also

his German citizenship.(德国公民资格).

nor,neither…nor是表示否定的语义增进,这就是说,如果上文是个否定结构,下文可用nor表示否定意义的增进。例如:

He is not interesed in physics(物理学),nor in biology(生物学).

The job cannot be done by you,nor by me,nor by anyone else.

It was not anger nor surprise,nor disapproval,nor horror, nor

any of the emotions she had been prepared for.

如果用nor连接分句,随后得用倒装词序。例如;

*Both Mary went marketing, and her mother did the cooking.

再者,and可以连接两个以上的项目,而both…and却只限于两项。比如我们可以说:

He can sing and dance and play the violin.

He can both sing and dance.

却和可以说:

*He can both sing and dance and pIay the vioIin.

not only...but(aIso)与both..and意义相近,但侧重在后一并列成分。例如:

NOt only the mother but also the children are sick.

She can not only speak English but also write in it.

与both…and不同,not only...but(also)可用来连接两个分句,作这种用法时,not only所引导的分句需用倒装词序。例如:

Not only was everything he had taken away from him,but also

his German citizenship.(德国公民资格).

nor,neither…nor是表示否定的语义增进,这就是说,如果上文是个否定结构,下文可用nor表示否定意义的增进。例如:

He is not interesed in physics(物理学),nor in biology(生物学).

The job cannot be done by you,nor by me,nor by anyone else.

It was not anger nor surprise,nor disapproval,nor horror, nor

any of the emotions she had been prepared for.

如果用nor连接分句,随后得用倒装词序。例如;

I don't want to go,nor will my wife.

neither... nor表示"既不……又不"的含义,加强了否定的意义例如:

Neither my father nor I will go there

He neither ate,nor drank,nor smoked.

如果用neither…nor连接两个分句,两者都要用倒装词序。

Neither has he called on her ,nor wtll he do so.

Neither has she much time, nor have I.

在下列诸句中,ne此er可用于nor的意义,但不是并列连厉接副词:

She didn't give anything and neither did he.

=She didn't give anything,nor did he.

=She didn't give anything;neither did he.

The men were not well-dressed Nor/neither were the women

She hasn't much time and neitherr have I.

2) 表示语义转折和对比的并列连词

表示语义转拆和对比的并列连词以but为代表,此外还有

not...but,yet,whereas, while,only等。例如:

He is hard-working but not very intelligent .

He would like to go, but he can't.

we were comingto see you , but it rained(so we didn't).

They would have written to you, but you told them not to.

Hc would have said no,but he was afraid.

和and一样,并列连词but也可出现于句首,表示语义转折,

赵连接上下句的作用。例如:

When Galileo toId people of his discovery(发现),no one would

believe him. But Galileo was not discouraged.

When she saw that Abraham liked reading,she did all she could

to help him. But the family was poor and the boy could not get

many books.

折叠 编辑本段 基本连词

英语常用并列连词,如:and/but/so/yet/for/nor/or/notonly/……butalso/either…or或neither…nor等连接两个或几个同等成分,这种结构称为并列结构。连接的同等成分可以是动词的宾语、介词短语或名词的定语等。

例1:In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted can not be well defined.

例2:Astrophysicists working with ground?based detectors at the South Pole and balloon borne instruments are closing in on such structures, and may report their findings soon.

例3:It is not that the scales in the one case, and the balance in the other, differ in the principles of their construction or manner ofworking; but that the latter is a much finer apparatus and of course much more accurate in its measurement than the former.

折叠 编辑本段 内容补充

连词是一种虚词, 它不能独立担任句子成分而只起连接词与词,短语与短语以及句与句的作用。连词主要可分为两类:并列连词从属连词。并列连词用来连接平行的词、词组和分句。如:and, but, or, nor, so, therefore, yet, however, for, hence, as well as, both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor, (and)then等等。

1. 并列连词 并列连词用来连接属于同一层次并具有相同句法功能的词;短语或句子。并列连词包括:基本并列连词如 and, or , but , 关联连词如 either...or , neither...nor , not only...but also ,both ...and, whether...or 等;介于并列连词与从属连词之间的连词;介于并列连词与从属连词或介词之间的结构如 as well as , as much as, rather than , more than, no less than 等;此外还有些'半连接词',一些语法学家把它们称为连接副词,如 nevertheless, however, meanwhile, otherwise, likewise 等,它们在句中做连接性状语。这类连词主要是从逻辑上,而不是从形式上连接句子,其关系比较松散。

1) 表示意义转折和对比的并列连词

常见的有:but , while, whereas, still, yet , nevertheless, likewise, anyway , only , conversely , on the contrary, by this time, all the same , fortunately, on the other hand , in the meantime 等词语。

2) 表示选择的并列连词

常见的有: or, whether...or, either...or, otherwise 等。例如:

Either ...or 和 whether...or 表示选择,其意义比单用 or 要强,但由 whetrher...or 构成的并列结构一般只能担任句子的从属成分。上例中最后一句, whether...or 结构在句中担任句子的从属成分。 Either ...or 和 or 一样,可以连接两个并列的独立分句,而 whether...or 则不可以。 or 用于表示否定的条件意义时,有时可与连用。

Or 连接主语时,如主语都是单数,动词则取单数形式;如主语都是复数,动词则取复数形式,如果主语有的是复数,动词则取复数形式,如果主语有的是单数,有的是复数,动词的数则与它靠近的主语的数相一致。

连接两个主语时,动词的数也应与靠近他的主语的数相一致。例如:

Neither he nor I am a good student.

3) 表示因果意义的并列并列连词

常见的有: for ,so ,therfore ,hence ,thus, accordingly, consequently, on that account, in that case 等。例如:

The fuel must have beeenfinished, for the engine stopped.

It rained , therefore the game was called off.

表示原因的并列连词只有 for ,它所引导的分句只是对前一分句补充说明理由或推断原因。 for 引导的分句只能置于句末,而且必须用逗号与前一分句隔开。上面所提到的 so,therefore 等词,有的语法学家把它们做为连接性状语。

4) 表示联合关系的并列连词

常见的有: and, both...and, neither...nor, not only... but also 等。

当 neither...nor, not only ...but also 连接主语时,动词的数则与靠近它的主语的数相一致。 Both ...and 不能连接两个以上的并列成分,也不能连接分句。例如: 误:Both Mary swept the floor and Nancy mopped it.

5) 其它并列连词

常见的有: as well as, more than, rather than, no less than 等.

(1) as well as 表示 '同' 和 '也' 的意义

as well as 用作并列连词时它意义相当于 not only...but also, 但侧重点在后一并列成分上而 as well as 侧重点却在前一并列成分上 ,A as well as B=not only B but also A.

(2) more than 表示而不是之意. 例如:

(3) rather than 表示 '而不是' 之意.

(4) no less than 表示 ' 同 ... 一样 ' 之意.

当 as well as ,more than, rather than, no less than 连接两个成分作主语时谓语动词应于第一个成分的数相一致. 在使用并列连词时我们应该注意:

(1) 并列连词不可以连用.

(2) 有些连接性状语副词可以和某些从属连词对应使用.

(3) 在 for 或 so that 引出的分句中如果主语与前一分句的主语所指相同其主语不可以省略. 同样, 如果第二个分句是由连接副词引出的其主语通常也不可省略.

阅读全文

热点资讯