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过去分词(英语:past participle值吸加龙演学护似目黑),是分词的一种,通常含有被动意义。

规则动词的过去分词一般是由动词加-ed构成(规则见后)。

本信息

  • 中文名称

    过去分词

  • 外文名称

    past participle

折叠 编辑本段 关后缀

折叠 -ed

英语过去时和360百科过去分词的后缀。某些过去分词也可以作为形容词。如:

absorb-absorbed

accredit-accredited

ac粉视胞钢支好器独花又数custom-accustomed

affect-affected

anguished-anguished

betroth-betrothed

bewitch-bewitched

confess-confessed

concern-concerned

content-contented

enamour-enamoured

heat-heated

piss-pissed

vest-v准完温斗执备顶湖蛋微相ested

也可以附在名词后构成形容词,如:

talent-talented

money-moneyed

bigot-bigoted

intention-intentioned

precedent-precedented

wretch-wret限合ched

折叠 -d

用于构成部分动词(尤其是以e结尾的动词)的过去时或者过去分词。某些过去分词也可以作为形容词。如:

bedraggle-bedraggled

bone-boned

calculate-calculated

celebrate-celebrated

cultivate-cultivated

deserve-deserved

disease-diseased

游房上况广映disgrunt古察送室家之之le-disgruntled

fate-fated

hear-heard

practise-practised

resolve-resolved

separate-separated

sou烈费准转刘图走放括者早se-soused

waste-wasted

也可以附方含天婷并继吸依镇友在名词后构成形容词,如:shrew-shrewd。

还可以构成表示状态的名词,如:机皮良品风定船foe-feud。

折叠 -t

用于构成过去时或过去分词,如:dream-dreamt。

用以构成相当于过去分词的形容词尔帝待笔怕蒸小,如:cover-covert,skin-skint。

用以构成名词,相当于名词化的过去分词:r卷帝还翻estrain-restraint 。

源于拉丁语过去分词的形容词也可能以-t结尾,如distinct源于拉留拿五难全频少丁语distinguere的过去分词distinctus。

折叠 -en

用以构成过去分词,如:eat-eaten。

用以构成相当于过去分词的形容词,如:behold-beholden。以及更一般的形容词:gold-golden。

折叠 -n

用以构成过去分词,如:know-known,rive-riven。known、riven也是形容词。

构成拉养儿感始饭至形容词类似于-en:silver-silvern。

折叠 -ee

来自法语过去分词结尾-é,构成名词。常表示受动者:emp独织由顶loy-employee。

折叠 -ate

来自拉丁语某些动词的过去分词结尾-atus,与-ed同源。这些过去分词作为形容词被引入英语,因英语中很多形容词、动词同形,故又作为动词使用(如an尽今imate、separate、moderate)。化学中用-ate表示盐、酯也松季笑结自能源于这个过去分词结尾。比如:

助位城和rustic-rusticate

折叠 -edly

附于规则动词后构成副词,表示行动或受动的状态或动作行为的方式。一般对应一个以-ed结尾的形容选也问间派清夜词,但有些不是,比如allowedly。

折叠 -bound

维南功据着坏这是bind或者一个古挪威语动词的过去分词。附在名词后构成形容词:musclebound。

折叠 -a前送星程缩种化穿缺tive

源于拉丁语形容词后缀-ivus加在过去分词结尾-atus后。如:

transform-落收强洲备再秋朝绿transformative

折叠 -ive

源于拉丁语-ivus,在拉丁语中一般附在过去分词后构成形容词。于是在英语中常常出现-tiv创概叫读跟述接志受画永e结尾的形容词。

illustrate-illustrative

折叠 -ion

源于拉主编贵夫绝食丁语宾格-ionem(主格-io),附在过去分词后构成名词。于是在英语中常常出现-tion结尾的名词。

accentuate-accentuation

fluctuate-fluctuation

suppress-suppressio饭象况动完新n

允许加后缀,如confessional。

折叠 -ure

源于拉丁语名词后缀-ura,附在过去分词(用如形容词)后构成名词。于是在英语中常常出现-ture结尾的名词。

admixture

折叠 多表已-spoken

构成形容词,表示"说话有……特点的",如soft-spoken。来自speak的过去分词。

折叠 -or

拉丁语表示施动者的后缀,附在过去分词之后。于是在英语中常常出现-tor结尾的名词渐胜胞秋

折叠 -ite

来自拉丁语某些以-itus结尾的过去分词。构成缺衣形容词,比如:

bipartite,apposite

折叠 -ation

源于拉丁语名词后缀-ionem(宾应杀员换直钟久年格,主格-io)加在过去分词结尾-atus后。如:

suspire-suspiration

折叠 -ible

源于拉丁语形容词后缀-ibilis,有环权甚北时附在过去分词之后。于是在英语中常常出现-tible结尾的形容词。

某些以-ible结尾的词完全变成了名词,比如foibl候轻e。

折叠 -ity

有时候用在过去分词的后面。速前伤富统式达静界构成名词。如:

propense-propensity

prope景官操nse来自拉丁语动词propendere的过去分词propensus。

折叠 -made

室移也田程乡则哥言示"……结构的""……制造的"。如well-made

折叠 编辑本段 构成规则

规则动词的过去分词的构成规则与规则动词的过去式的构成规则相同。四点变化规则:

(1)一般动词加-ed (然而要注意的是,过去分词并不是过去式术衣十前)

work--worke时民调方草额减屋急歌跟d

visit--visited

(2)以e结尾的动词加答在甚协-d。

live-lived

agree-agreed

ante-anted

但a出劳点具她委掉方包边六nte的过去分词有anteed的写法。

(3)以"辅音字母 + y "结尾的动词,将 "y" 变为 "i" ,再加-ed

study-studied

cry-cried

try-tried

fry-fried

ensky-enskied

freeze-dry-freeze-dried

但ensky的过去分词有enskyed的写法。

(4)重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,先双写该辅音字母,再加"-ed"。

stop-stopped

drop-dropped

特例:有两类动词本身应该直接加"ed",但由于历史习惯,依旧要双写最后一个字母,再加-ed。以"元音字母+l"非重读结尾的规则动词变过去分词也要双写"l",再加-ed。例如cancel→cancelled,dial→dialled。另外还有一些以非重读闭音节结尾的规则动词变过去分词也要双写最后一个辅音字母,再加-ed。例如:kidnap→kidnapped,w殖景序素解题罪简orship→wor路盐突烈机不令用略培shipped。而上述两种情况在美国一般却直接加-ed。

(5)以c结尾的动词,加-ked。

traffic-trafficked

arc-arcked

这样做主要是为了避免变化后其原型尾音/k/变成/s/。根据英文的拼写规则,c在字母e、i、y之前均发/s/,其他情况下均发/k/。如果直接加"ed"的话,trafficed将会读成/'træfɪsɪd/,而不读/'træfɪkt/。

但arc、talc、zinc的过去分词也有不含k的arced、talced、zinced的写法。

例外:disc-disced,sync-synced。

折叠 编辑本段 不规则动词

折叠 概观

从拼写上看,一个不规则动词和它的过去分词之间,主要有如下差别:

(1)增加新的不同的元音字母,或把原有的元音字母(或者y)换成完全不同的元音字母或:begin-begun,fight-fought。

(2)去掉结尾的e:slide-slid。

(3)删除连续的两个相同的字母中的一个:bleed-bled。

(4)加过去分词后缀:hear-heard,dream-dreamt,know-known,eat-eaten。

(5)删除辅音字母:alight-alit。

(6)换成完全不同的辅音字母或增加新的辅音字母:make-made。

下面我们基于以上四种操作来探讨不规则动词的过去分词。

折叠 拼写不变型

这种情况不涉及任何操作,过去分词和原形拼写相同:

  1. cast-cast
  2. cost-cost
  3. cut-cut
  4. hit-hit
  5. hurt-hurt
  6. let-let
  7. put-put
  8. read/ri:d/-read/red/
  9. set-set
  10. shred-shred
  11. shut-shut

其中read和它的过去分词read读音不同。

折叠 (1)型

i变u

begin-begun

cling-clung

dig-dug

fling-flung

sing-sung

sink-sunk

sling-slung

slink-slunk

spin-spun

spring-sprung

sting-stung

stink-stunk

swim-swum

swing-swung

i变o

win-won

i变ou

fight-fought

grind-ground

o变e

behold-beheld

hold-held

uphold-upheld

e变o

get-got

折叠 (2)型

slide-slid

lead-led

折叠 (3)型

bleed-bled

breed-bred

feed-fed

heat-het

meet-met

speed-sped

折叠 (4)型

-n

  1. arise-arisen
  2. blow-blown
  3. drive-driven
  4. forsake-forsaken
  5. grave-graven
  6. hew-hewn
  7. lade-laden
  8. rise-risen
  9. rive-riven
  10. shake-shaken
  11. shrive-shriven
  12. saw-sawn
  13. sow-sown
  14. strew-strewn
  15. take-taken
  16. throw-thrown
  17. unlade-unladen

-t

  1. deal-dealt
  2. dream-dreamt
  3. lean-leant
  4. learn-learnt
  5. mean-meant
  6. spoil-spoilt

-d

  1. hear-heard

-en

eat-eaten

折叠 (5)型

alight-alit

light-lit

折叠 (6)型

k变d

make-made

d变t

geld-gelt

gird-girt

lend-lent

send-sent

折叠 (1)(4)混合型

fly-flown

forswear-forsworn

interweave-interwoven

lie-lain

shear-shorn

tear-torn

buy-bought

awake-awoken

sink-sunken

speak-spoken

swell-swollen

say-said

折叠 (3)(4)混合型

creep-crept

feel-felt

keep-kept

kneel-knelt

sleep-slept

sweep-swept

bless-blest

flee-fled

折叠 (4)(6)混合型

bide-bidden

bite-bitten

折叠 (1)(4)(6)混合型

cleave-cleft

leave-left

reave-reft

bereave-bereft

beget-begotten

tread-trodden

bid-bidden

forget-forgotten

untread-untrodden

折叠 (1)(2)(6)混合型

strike-struck

折叠 (1)(3)(4)混合型

sell-sold

tell-told

unsell-unsold

折叠 复杂变化型

beseech-besought

bring-brought

clothe-clad

misunderstand-misunderstood

stand-stood

think-thought

折叠 AAA型

即原形、过去式和过去分词三者都相同。(共10个)

  1. cast--cast--cast
  2. cost-cost-cost
  3. cut-cut-cut
  4. hit-hit-hit
  5. hurt(损伤)-hurt-hurt
  6. let(让)-let-let
  7. put-put-put
  8. read/ri:d/-read/red/-read/red/(read的原形和过去式、过去分词 读音不同 )
  9. set-set-set
  10. shut-shut-shut

折叠 ABB型

过去式、过去分词相同。(共42个)

  1. 过去式和过去分词都含有 -ought。(4个) bring-brought-brought buy-bought-bought think-thought-thought fight-fought-fought
  2. 词尾有-ild,-end时,只需把d变为t。(4个) build-built-built lend-lent- lent send-sent-sent spend-spent- spent
  3. 过去式、过去分词都含有 -aught。(2个) catch-caught-caught teach-taught-taught
  4. 把-eep、-eel变为-ept、-elt。(4个) keep-kept-kept sleep-slept-slept sweep- swept-swept feel-felt- felt
  5. 把-ell变为-old。(2个) tell-told-told sell-sold-sold
  6. 把-ell、-ill变为-elt或-ilt。(3个) smell-smelt-smelt spell-spelt-spelt spill-spilt-spilt
  7. 把-eed、-ead、-eet变为-ed或-et。(4个) feed-fed-fed lead-led-led speed-sped-sped meet-met-met
  8. 过去式、过去分词都在原形词尾加t。(6个) learn-learnt-learnt mean-meant-meant spoil-spoilt-spoilt burn-burnt-burnt dream-dreamt-dreamt deal-dealt-dealt
  9. 过去式、过去分词词尾去y变-id(3个) say-said-said pay-paid-paid lay-laid-laid
  10. 改变元音字母。(12个) get-got-got sit-sat-sat find-found-found hold-held-held spit-spat-spat shine-shone-shone win-won-won hang-hung-hung dig- dug-dug
  11. 改变辅音字母。(4个) make-made-made
  12. 改变元、辅音字母。(4个) leave-left-left stand-stood-stood have/has-had-had understand-understood-understood

折叠 ABC型

原形、过去式、过去分词都不相同。(共39个)

  1. i-a-u变化。(7个) begin-began-begun drink-drank-drunk sing- sang-sung ring-rang-rung swim-swam-swum sink- sank-sunk spring-sprang-sprung
  2. 词尾为-ow,-aw时,过去式将其变为-ew,过去分词在其原形后加n。(5个) blow-blew-blown draw-drew-drawn grow- grew-grown know-knew-known throw-threw-thrown(show除外)
  3. 词尾为"i+辅(1个)+e",过去式将i变为o,过去分词多在原形后加n,若那个辅音字母为d或t,须双写d或t后加n。(4个)(give,hide除外) drive-drove-driven write-wrote-written ride- rode-ridden rise-rose-risen
  4. 过去分词在过去式后加n。(3个) wake-woke-woken speak-spoke-spoken steal-stole-stolen
  5. 过去分词由过去式加-ten构成。(2个) get-got-gotten/got forget-forgot-forgotten
  6. 过去分词由原形加(e)n构成。(7个) be-was(were)-been eat-ate-eaten fall-fell-fallen give-gave-given see-saw-seen hide-hid-hidden(hid) take-took-taken
  7. 词尾为-ake时,过去式将其变为-ook,过去分词在原形词后加-n。(2个) take-took-taken mistake-mistook-mistaken
  8. 原形、过去式和过去分词都不相同。(6个) do-did-done fly-flew-flown go-went-gone lie-lay-lain show-showed-shown wear-wore-worn
  9. 词尾为-eak时,过去式将其变为-oke,过去分词在过去式后加-n。(2个) break-broke-broken speak-spoke-spoken
  10. 词中间为"oo+辅(1个)+e"或"ee+辅(1个)+e",过去式将oo、ee变为o,过去分词在过去式后加-n。(2个) choose-chose-chosen freeze-froze-frozen

折叠 AAB型

过去式和原形相同。(1个)

beat-beat-beaten

折叠 ABA型

过去分词和原形相同。(共3个)

(单个元音字母改变)

come-came-come

become-became-become

run-ran-run

折叠 情态动词型

(除must)

只有原形和过去式,没有过去分词。(共4个)

  1. can-could
  2. may-might
  3. will-would
  4. shall-should

must 既没有过去式也没有过去分词。

折叠 常用过去分词

be(am,is,are) (是)was,were been

begin(开始) began begun

drink(喝) drank drunk

ring(铃响) rang rung

sing (唱) sang sung

swim(游泳) swam swum

blow(吹) blew blown

draw(画) drew drawn

fly(飞) flew flown

grow(生长) grew grown

know(知道) knew known

throw(投掷) threw thrown

show(出示) showed shown

break(打破) broke broken

choose(选择) chose chosen

forget(忘记) forgot forgotten (forgot)

speak(说,讲) spoke spoken

wake(醒) woke woken

drive(驾驶) drove driven

eat(吃) ate eaten

fall(落下) fell fallen

give(给) gave given

rise(升高) rose risen

take(取) took taken

ride(骑) rode ridden

write(写) wrote written

do(做) did done

go(去) went gone

lie(平躺) lay lain

see(看见) saw seen

wear (穿) wore worn

cost(花费)cost cost

cut(割) cut cut

hit(打) hit hit

hurt(伤害) hurt hurt

let(让) let let

put(放) put put

read(读) read read

动词原形 过去式 过去分词

arise arose arisen

折叠 其他情况

awake awoke/awaked awoken

be was/were been

bear bore borne(携带)/born(出生)

beat beat beaten

become became become

begin began begun

befall befell befallen

bend bent bent

bet bet bet

bind bound bound

bite bit bitten/bit

bleed bled bled

blend blended blent

bless blessed blest

blow blew blown

break broke broken

breed bred bred

bring brought brought

broadcast broadcast/broadcasted broadcast / broadcasted

build built built

burn burnt/burned burnt/burned

burst burst burst

buy bought bought

cast cast cast

catch caught caught

choose chose chosen

cleave clove/cleft cloven/cleft

cling clung clung

clothe clothed/clad clothed/clad

come came come

cost cost cost

creep crept crept

crow crowed/crew crowed

cut cut cut

dare dared/durst dared

deal dealt dealt

dig dug dug

do did done

draw drew drawn

dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed

drink drank drunk

drive drove driven

dwell dwelt dwelt

eat ate eaten

fall fell fallen

feed fed fed

feel felt felt

fight fought fought

find found found

flee fled fled

fling flung flung

fly flew flown

forbid forbade/forbad forbidden

forecast forecast/forecasted forecast / forecasted

forget forgot forgotten

forgive forgave forgiven

freeze froze frozen

gainsay gainsaid gainsaid

get got gotten

gild gilded/gilt gilded

gird girded/girt girded/girt

give gave given

go went gone

grave graved graven/graved

grind ground ground

grow grew grown

hang hung/hanged hung/hanged

have had had

hear heard heard

heave heaved/hove hesved/hove

hide hid hidden

hit hit hit

hold held held

hurt hurt hurt

keep kept kept

kneel knelt knelt

know knew known

lade laded laden

lay laid laid

lead led led

lean leant/leaned leant/leaned

leap leapt/leaped leapt/leaped

learn learnt/learned learnt/learned

leave left left

lend lent lent

let let let

lielay lain

lielied lied

light lit/lighted lit/lighted

lose lost lost

make made made

mean meant meant

meet met met

melt melted meited/molten

mistake mistook mistaken

misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood

outgrow outgrew outgrown

overcome overcame overcome

oversee oversaw overseen

pay paid paid

prove proved proved/proven

put put put

quit quitted/quit quitted/quit

read read read

rend rent rent

ride rode ridden

ring rang rung

rise rose risen

rive rived riven/rived

run ran run

saw sawed sawn/sawed

say said said

see saw seen

seek sought sought

sell sold sold

send sent sent

set set set

sew sewed sewn/sewed

shake shook shaken

shave shaved shaved/shaven

shear sheared sheared/shorn

shed shed shed

shine shone shone

shoe shod shod

shoot shot shot

show showed shown/showed

shrink shrank / shrunk shrunk/shrunken

shrive shrove / shrived shriven/shrived

shut shut shut

sing sang sung

sink sank/sunk sunk/sunken

sit sat sat

slay slew slain

sleep slept slept

slide slid slid

sling slung slung

slink slunk slunk

slit slit slit

smell smelt/smelled smelt/smelled

smite smote smitten

sow sowed sown/sowed

speak spoke spoken

speed sped/speeded sped/speeded

spell spelt/spelled spelt/spelled

spend spent spent

spill spilt/spilled spilt/spilled

spin spun/span spun

spit spat/spit spat/spit

spoil spoilt/spoiled spoilt/spoiled

spread spread spread

spring sprang/sprung sprung

stand stood stood

stave staved/stove staved/stove

steal stole stolen

stick stuck stuck

sting stung stung

swear swore sworn

sweep swept swept

swell swelled swollen/swelled

swim swam swum

swing swung swung

take took taken

teach taught taught

tear tore torn

tell told told

think thought thought

throw threw thrown

thrust thrust thrust

tread trod trodden/trod

upset upset upset

wake woke/waked woken/waked

wear wore worn

weave wove woven

weep wept wept

win won won

wind wound wound

work worked/wrought worked/wrought

wring wrung wrung

write wrote written

折叠 编辑本段 不止一个过去分词

有些词不止一个过去分词:

awake-awoken,awaked,awoke

heat-heated,het(方言)

gird-girded,girt

grave-graved,graven

learn-learned,learnt

light-lighted,lit

rive-rived,riven

shred-shredded,shred

spoil-spoiled,spoilt

折叠 编辑本段 过去分词与形容词

过去分词单独用时往往和形容词难以区分,有些词如damned可以说已经是标准的形容词了(最高级damnedest)。区别方法之一是形容词可能用very修饰,过去分词不能。另外从发音上看,某些形容词会把-ed中e的音发出来,如learned,cursed,blessed。

被视为形容词的过去分词很多。规则动词的过去分词中,除开上面已经提到的,还有finned,frenzied,deferred,fancied,justified,lipped,jellied,fried,committed,disembodied,matted,hurried,married。

不规则的过去分词也有作为形容词的,如:swollen,blest,shrunken,hurt,shorn,said,ground,forsworn,upset,misunderstood,heartbroken,cleft。cleft也是名词。

有些形容词有过去分词的形式却没有对应的动词,除了上面已经提到的talented等词外,还有emersed,unexpected,inexperienced,unhallowed等。

形容词distraught曾经是一个不规则过去分词,但现在只作为形容词使用。

某些过去分词形式的形容词已经有不对应于动词的新义,如understated,palsied,engaged,hammered。

以-ate结尾的形容词一般来自拉丁语的过去分词结尾,这时它们就是标准的形容词了,如appellate,dilatate。这类形容词有时候也是动词,形容词和同形动词的过去分词是同义词,比如inebriated和inebriate。

折叠 编辑本段 过去分词与名词

有些动词的过去分词,比如altered,woven,girt,married,可以用为名词。

名词后缀-ee来自法语过去分词。restraint也如此。

某些以-ate结尾的名词来自拉丁语过去分词,比如variate。其中表示盐或酯的也是如此,比如phosphate。

折叠 编辑本段 过去分词与动词

过去分词作为非限定动词的一种,本身就具备一定的动词属性,但不能直接充当谓语。某些动词的过去分词也有限定动词的意思,是原词的同义词,比如gird的过去分词girt,girt作为限定动词是gird的同义词。

以-ate结尾的动词一般来自拉丁语的过去分词结尾,这时它们就是标准的限定动词了,比如desiccate,situate,sibilate。这些动词有自己的以-ated结尾的过去分词。其中某些过去分词如desiccated,situtated也可以作为形容词。有时候带-ate和不带-ate的均有,两者是同义词,如predestine和predestinate。

折叠 编辑本段 外来词及其他

前面已经提到一些后缀是源于过去分词的,下面再补充一些。

折叠 拉丁语、法语

源于拉丁语过去分词的英语动词

拉丁语动词

过去分词

名词

派生名词

动词

过去分词

英语动词

参考资料

fluere

fluctus

fluctus


fluctuare

fluctuatus

fluctuate

terere

tritus

tritura


triturare

trituratus

triturate

canere

cantus

cantus

accentus

accentuare

accentuatus

accentuate

eventire

eventus





eventuate

transgredi

transgressus





transgress

extorquere

extortus





extort

源于法语过去分词的英语动词

法语动词

过去分词

英语名词

参考资料

fondre

fondue(阴性)

fondue

employer

employé

employe

源于过去分词的英语形容词

拉丁语动词

过去分词

动词

过去分词

英语形容词

参考资料

nasci

natus

naître(法语)

née(阴性)

nee

emergere

emersus



emersed

源于过去分词的英语名词

拉丁语动词

过去分词

名词

派生动词

过去分词

英语名词

参考资料

adire

aditus

aditus



adit

spuere

sputum

sputum



sputum

affluere

affluxus

affluxus



afflux

stare

status

status

statuere

statutum(中性)

statute

subscribere

subscriptus




subscript

sortie中也含有两个过去分词。

dory(鱼名)源于古法语dorer的阴性过去分词doree,dorer源于拉丁语deaurare的过去分词deauratus。

英语中的法语词risqué(有伤风化的)是法语risquer的过去分词。

vomit(动词/名词)来自拉丁语vomitare的过去分词vomitus。

折叠 古英语

wont(形容词/动词/名词)源于一个过去分词 ,这个词的过去分词wonted也是形容词。

折叠 西班牙语

tostada(名词)源于西班牙语tostar的过去分词。

折叠 编辑本段 充当表语

The city is surrounded on three sides by mountains. 这座城市三面环山。

【注意】过去分词作表语与被动语态的区别:过去分词作表语,主要是表示主语的状态,而被动语态则表示动作。

(1) The cup was broken by my little sister yesterday. 茶杯是昨天我小妹打碎的。(是被动语态,表示动作)

(2) The library is now closed. 图书馆关门了。(过去分词作表语)

【注意】过去分词表示被动和完成,V-ing 形式表示主动和进行.有些动词如 interest,bore,worry,surprise,frighten 等通常用其过去分词形式来修饰人,用 -ing 形式来修饰物。

(3) The book is interesting and I'm interested in it. 这本书很有趣,我对它很感兴趣。

折叠 编辑本段 充当定语

充当定语的过去分词相当于形容词,其逻辑主语就是它所修饰的名词。及物动词的过去分词作定语,既表被动又表完成;不及物动词的过去分词作定语,只表完成。

1. 过去分词充当定语,如果是单个的,常置于其所修饰的名词之前。

We must adapt our thinking to the changed conditions. 我们必须使我们的思想适应改变了的情况。

2. 过去分词短语充当定语时,一般置于其所修饰的名词之后,其意义相当于一个定语从句,但较从句简洁,多用于书面语中。

The concert given by their friends was a success.他们朋友举行的音乐会大为成功。

3.过去分词短语有时也可充当非限制性定语,前后常有逗号。

The meeting, attended by over five thousand people, welcomed the great hero. 他们举行了欢迎英雄的大会,到会的有五千多人。

4. 用来修饰人的过去分词有时可以转移到修饰非人的事物,这种过去分词在形式上虽不直接修饰人,但它所修饰的事物仍与人直接有关。

The boy looked up with a pleased satisfied expression. 男孩带着满意的表情举目而视。

折叠 编辑本段 充当状语

1. 过去分词充当状语表示被动的和完成的动作。

(1) Written in a hurry, this article was not so good! 因为写得匆忙,这篇文章不是很好。

【注意】written 为过去分词作状语,表示这篇文章是被写的,而且已经被写. 值得注意的是,有些过去分词因来源于系表结构,充当状语时在意义上是"主动"的。这样的过去分词及短语常见的有: lost (迷路); seated (坐); hidden (躲); stationed (驻扎); lost / absorbed in (沉溺于); born (出身于); dressed in (穿着); tired of (厌烦)。

(2) Lost / Absorbed in deep thought,he didn't hear the sound.因为沉溺于思考之中,所以他没听到那个声音。

2. 过去分词作状语时其逻辑主语为主句的主语,此时应注意人称一致;

(1) Given another hour, I can also work out this problem.

再给我一个小时,我也能解这道题。

(2)Seen from the top of the hill, the city looks more beautiful to us.

从山顶看城市,城市显得更漂亮。(seen 为过去分词作状语,表"被看",由语境可知,它的逻辑主语必须是城市,而不是"我们",因为"我们"应主动看城市。)

3. 过去分词作状语来源于状语从句.

(1) Caught in a heavy rain,he was all wet. 因为淋了一场大雨,所以他全身湿透了。 (caught in a heavy rain 为过去分词短语作原因状语,它来源于原因状语从句Because he was caught in a heavy rain.)

(2)_Grown in rich soil,these seeds can grow fast. 如果种在肥沃的土壤里,这些种子能长得很快。grown in rich soil 为过去分词作条件状语,它来源于条件状语从句 。If these seeds are grown in rich soil.

【注意】状语从句改成过去分词作状语时有时还可保留连词,构成"连词+过去分词"结构作状语。

When given a medical examination,you should keep calm. 当你做体格检查时要保持镇定。

4. 过去分词作状语的位置.过去分词可放在主句前作句首状语,后面有逗号与主句隔开;也可放在主句后面,前面有逗号与主句隔开。

He stood there silently,moved to tears. = Moved to tears,he stood there silently. 他静静地站在那里,被感动得热泪盈眶

折叠 编辑本段 独立主格

如果过去分词作状语时,前面再加逻辑主语,主句的主语就不再是分词的逻辑主语,这种带逻辑主语的过去分词结构实际上属于独立主格结构

(1) The signal given, the bus started. 信号一发出,汽车就开动了。

the signal 是 given 的逻辑主语,因此主句主语 the bus 就不是given 的逻辑主语。

(2) Her head held high, she went by. 她把头昂得高高地从这儿走了过去。

her head 是 held high 的逻辑主语,因此主句主语 she 就不再是held high 的逻辑主语。

折叠 编辑本段 充当宾语补足语

能够接过去分词作宾补的动词有以下四类:

1. 表示感觉或心理状态的动词.如:see,watch,observe,look at,hear,listen to,feel,notice,think等。

(1) I heard the song sung in English. 我听到有人用英语唱过这首歌。(过去分词sung的动作显然先于谓语动作heard;)

(2) He found his hometown greatly changed. 他发现他的家乡变化很大。(过去分词changed的动作显然先于谓语动作found)

2. 表示"致使"意义的动词.如:have,make,get,keep,leave等。

(1) I'll have my hair cut tomorrow. 明天我要理发。

(2) He got his tooth pulled out yesterday. 他昨天把牙拔了。

(3) Don't leave those things undone. 要把那些事情做完。

使役动词have接过去分词作宾补有两种情况。

过去分词所表示的动作由他人完成:He had his money stolen.他的钱给偷了。(被别人偷去了)

过去分词所表示的动作由句中的主语所经历:He had his leg broken.他的腿断了。 (自己的经历)

3. 表示思维活动的动词如consider,know,think等后。如:

(1) I consider the matter settled. 我认为这件事解决了。

(2) I thought myself wronged somehow in the bargain. 我认为自己在这场交易中又受愚弄了。

4. 表示爱憎,意愿的动词如want, wish, like, hate等后。如:

(1) I wanted two tickets reserved. 我要预定两张机票。

(2) He didn't wish it mentioned. 他不愿这事被提起。

【注意】过去分词所表示的动作一定和宾语有逻辑上的动宾关系

折叠 编辑本段 with+宾语+过去分词

此结构中,过去分词用作介词with的宾语补足语.这一结构通常在句中作时间,方式,条件,原因等状语

(1) The murderer was brought in,with his hands tied behind his back. 凶手被带进来了,他的双手被绑在背后。(表方式)

(2) With water heated,we can see the steam. 水一被加热,我们就会看到水蒸气。(表条件)

(3) With the matter settled,we all went home. 事情得到解决,我们都回家了。(表原因)

(4)She stood in front of him,with her eyes fixed on his face. 她站在他面前,眼睛注视着他。

(5) He stood for an instant with his hand still raised. 他仍然举着手站了一会儿。

折叠 编辑本段 其他功能

折叠 作为完成式的组成部分

显然,过去分词还是各种完成式的组成部分,兹不赘。

折叠 作为被动语态的组成部分

显然,过去分词还是各种被动语态的组成部分,兹不赘。

折叠 用于造词

用过去分词构造新词,大概有以下几种:

(1)否定前缀+过去分词。构成形容词。

un-:uninhibited,unaltered,undocumented,unabated,unleavened,unsubstantiated,unprejudiced,unfunded,undefined,unidentified,unfrequented,unremitted,unbleached,unstressed,uncoordinated,unsecured,unrecorded,unaccented,uncounted,uncharted,unheeded,unheralded,uncircumcised,unmet,unformed,unfazed,undressed,unexpected,unrivaled,undoubted,unrequited,unwearied,unschooled,unparalleled,unpublished,unearned,unfounded,unlinked,unasked,undeveloped。

mis-:misaligned

mal-:malformed

(2)副词+过去分词。构成形容词。

well-earned,well-regulated,well-kept,well-meant,undernourished,well-founded,ill-behaved

(3)过去分词+-ness。构成名词。

preparedness

(4)名词+过去分词。名词一般为行为主体。构成形容词。

time-honored,windswept,sun-dried,bloodstained

(5)过去分词+副词。相当于对应短语动词转变而来的形容词。

jazzed-up

(6)形容词+过去分词。构成形容词。

good-humored

(7)过去分词+名词。过去分词修饰名词,名词一般是行为客体。

altered-state

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