2021-09-11 18:21:21

语态 免费编辑 添加义项名

B 添加义项
?
义项指多义词的不同概念,如李娜的义项:网球运动员、歌手等;非诚勿扰的义项:冯小刚执导电影、江苏卫视交友节目等。 查看详细规范>>
所属类别 :
语法|外语
语法|外语
编辑分类

语态是动词的一种形式,用以说明主语与谓语动词之间的关系。常见语态有主动语态、被动语态和中间语态。

英语的语态共有两种:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,一般说来,只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态。

汉语往往用"被"、"受"、"给"等被动词来表示被动意义。被动语态由"助动词be+及物动词的过去分词"构成。被动语态的时态变化只改变be的形式,过去分词部分不变。疑问式和否定式的变化也如此。所以,语态的改变意味着句子的改变。

5
本词条 无参考资料, 欢迎各位 编辑词条,额外获取5个金币。

基本信息

  • 中文名称

    语态

  • 外文名称

    Voice

  • 概念

    语态是动词的一种形式

  • 分类

    主动语态和被动语态

折叠 编辑本段 中间语态

某些语言(比如梵语、冰岛语和古希腊语)有中间语态。中间语态在主动语态被动语态的中间,因为主语不能被归类为主动者或被动者但有二者的要素。表现得主动但表达被动行动的不及物动词刻画了英语中的中间语态。例如,在"The casserole cooked in the oven",在语法上主动但在语义上被动,属于中间语态。

在古希腊语中,中间语态经常是反身的,指示主语做关于自身或为了自身的行动,比如"The boy washes himself"或"The boy washes"。它可以是及物动词也可以是不及物动词。它偶尔用在使役性意义上,比如"The father causes his son to be set free"或"The father ransoms his son"。

拉丁语中的很多异相动词代表了幸存的原始印欧语中间语态;其中很多在罗曼语言如法语和西班牙语中幸存为强制性伪-反身动词。

折叠 编辑本段 被动语态

折叠 拉丁语

拉丁语的被动表现完全符合屈折语的特征,即采用动词的一个特定变形(inflection)。例如:"poemam legit" 他读诗歌。"poema legitur"诗歌被他读。

折叠 英语

屈折特征已经退化的英语使用迂回方式表现被动态。也就是并非利用动词的某一形式来表现被动,而是使用若干词汇的组合来形成被动态表现。具体地说,是由 be 助动词主动词过去分词组合而成。

折叠 汉语

参见:把字句被字句主谓短语

汉语对被动态的使用具有两个特征:

1、作为孤立语,单纯地使用主宾易位和助词"被"来实现被动;

2、作为主题优势语言,汉语对被动态的使用相对于印欧语言比较谨慎。例文: 主动:狗咬了这个男人。 被动:这个男人被狗咬了。

折叠 日语

日语使用黏着的方式,通过在动词后附着被动助动词"れる・られる"(现代日语)或"る"(古典日语)来表现被动。但是由于日语也是主题优势语言,宾语出现在一个语法上为主动句的主语位置的情况也经常能见到。另外,日语还存在一种称为受害态的特殊被动表现。

折叠 编辑本段 其他语态

折叠 反被动语态

省去或忽视被动者,通常用于作-通格语言中。在某些主-宾格语言也有应用。

折叠 应动语态

增加动词配价的语态。通常是把非主、谓语论元变为谓语论元。

折叠 编辑本段 英语语态概念

英语语法--动词的语态

1动词的语态

语态有两种:主动语态被动语态

主语是动作的发出者为主动语态;主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。

1)若宾语补足语是不带to 的不定式,变为被动语态 时,该不定式前要加"to"。此类动词为感官动词

feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch

The teacher made me go out of the classroom.

--> I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher).

We saw him play football on the playground.

--> He was seen to play football on the playground.

2)情态动词+ be +过去分词,构成被动语态。

Coal can be used to produce electricity for agriculture and industry.

1 let 的用法

1)当let后只有一个单音节动词,变被动语态时,可用不带to 的不定式。

They let the strange go.---> The strange was let go.

2) 若let 后宾补较长时,let 通常不用被动语态,而用allow或permit 代替。

The nurse let me go to see my classmate in the hospital.

----> I was allowed / permitted to see my classmate in the hospital.

短语动词的被动语态

短语动词是一个整体,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。

This is a photo of the power station that has been set up inmy hometown.

My sister will be taken care of by Grandma.

Such a thing has never been heard of before..

表示"据说"或"相信" 的词组

believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say,see, suppose, think, understand

  • It is said that… 据说
  • It is reported that… 据报道
  • It is believed that… 大家相信
  • It is hoped that… 大家希望
  • It is well known that… 众所周知
  • It is thought that… 大家认为
  • It is suggested that… 据建议
  • It is taken granted that… 被视为当然
  • It has been decided that… 大家决定
  • It must be rememberedthat…务必记住的是
  • It is said that she will leave for Wuhan on Tuesday.

不用被动语态的情况

1) 及物动词或动词短语无被动语态:

appear, die disappear, end (vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie,remain, sit, spread, stand,break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart,take place.

After the fire, very little remained of my house.

比较: rise, fall, happen是不及物动词;raise, seat是及物动词。

(错) The price has been risen.

(对) The price has risen.

(错) The accident was happened last week.

(对) The accident happened last week.

(错) The price has raised.

(对) The price has been raised.

(错) Please seat.

(对) Please be seated.

要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积累。

2) 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语:

fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch,agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeedin, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to

This key just fits the lock.

这把钥匙只适合于这把锁。

Your story agrees with what had already been heard.

你的故事与听说的相符。

3) 系动词被动语态:

appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look,remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn

It sounds good. 听起来很好。

4) 同源宾语的及物动词,反身代词,相互代词,不能用于被动语态:die, death, dream, live, life

She dreamed a bad dream last night.

她昨晚做了个噩梦。

5) 当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态

(对) She likes to swim. 她喜爱游泳。

(错) To swim is liked by her.

主动形式表示被动意义

1)wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read,wear, feel, draw, write, sell, drive…

The book sells well.

这本书销路好。

This knife cuts easily.

这刀子很好用。

2)blame, let(出租), remain, keep, rent, build

I was to blame for the accident.

我对这起事故负责。

Much work remains.

还有大量工作要做。

3) 在need, require, want, worth (形容词), deserve后的动名词必须用主动形式。

The door needs repairing.= The door needs to berepaired. 门需要修了。

This room needs cleaning. 这房间应该打扫一下。

This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。

4) 特殊结构:make sb. heard / understood (使别人能听见/理解自己),have sth. done ( 要某人做某事)。

被动形式表示主动意义

be determined, be pleased, be graduated (from), be finished,be prepared (for), be occupied (in), get marries

He is graduated from a famous university.

他毕业于一所有名的大学。

注意: 表示同某人结婚,用marry sb. 或get married to sb. 都可。

He married a rich girl.

他娶了一个有钱的女孩。

He got married to a rich girl.

他娶了一个有钱的女孩。

7 need/want/require/worth

注意:当 need, want, require, worth(形容词)后面接doing也可以表示被动。

Your hair wants cutting.

你的头发该理了。

The floor requires washing.

地板需要冲洗。

The book is worth reading.

这本书值得一读。

主动语态与被动语态有时相互不能转换

从语法理论来说,主动语态与被动语态可以相互转换(通常不会引起句子意义的变化);但在实际使用中,它们有时却受到主语、谓语、宾语以及语义、语用、语境、语体、逻辑和惯用法等的限制,而不能相互转换。

不能转换为被动语态的几种情况

主动句并不意味着一定要有一个相对应的被动句不可,有时主动语态不能转换为被动语态。这主要有下列几种情况:

1.英国著名学者迈克尔·斯旺先生在2005年出版的《实用英语用法》(第3版)一书中指出,表示状态的及物动词不能用于被动语态。例如:

(a)My shoes don't fit me.

(p)*I'm not fitted by my shoes.

(a)They have a nice house.

(p)*A nice house is had by them.

如果词义有不同,则可以用于被动语态:

(a)They fitted new seat covers on their car.

(p)New seat covers were fitted on their car.

表示状态的及物动词还有abide, befall, cost, fail, hold, lack, possess, resemble, suit, want等。在下面的句子中,也没有相应的被动语态:

(a)He turned the corner.

(p)*The corner was turned by him.

2.以反身代词为宾语的动词(即反身动词)一般不能用于被动语态。例如:

(a)He praises himself.

(p)*Himself is praised by him.

但可以转换为He is praised by himself.可以用作反身动词的还有apply, behave, conduct, deny, enjoy, forget, help, introduce, occupy, pride, seat, teach等。当动词的宾语为相互代词时,也不能用于被动语态:

(a)We must help each other.

(p)*Each other must be helped by us.

3.宾语前有与主语相同的物主形容词时,一般不能转换为被动句。例如:

(a)The teacher shook his head.

(p)*His head was shaken by the teacher.

但把物主代词改为定冠词时,就可以用于被动语态:

(a)The pilot ditched his plane.

(p)The plane was ditched by the pilot.

不能转换为主动语态的几种情况

同样,被动句也并不意味着一定要有一个相对应的主动句不可, 有时被动语态不能转换为主动语态。这主要有下列几种情况:

1.中国著名学者周海中先生在1986年发表的《英语语态转换简论》(下篇)一文中指出,某些句子结构习惯上只用被动语态,这时就不能转换为主动语态。例如:

All bodies are made up of atoms.

My advice was thrown away upon him.

这种被动结构还有be alleged, be bound up with, be done up, be grown over, be knocked up, be held up, be inclined, be lost on, be obliged to, be posted, be rumored to, be said to, be transported, be wound up等。

2.以代词it作形式主语的被动句,一般不能转换为主动句。例如:

It is known that sound is a form of energy.

It was rumored that the confidential documents had been found.

3.当被动句的施动者没有表示出来时,不能转换为主动句。例如:

Albert Einstein was born in 1879.

Manfred was killed in the Second World War.

如果改成主动句时加上一个施动者(如they, someone等),就会有损原句的意思。

折叠 编辑本段 典型例题

The library needs___, but it'll have to wait until Sunday.

A. cleaning B. be cleaned C. clean D. being cleaned

答案A. need (实意) +n /to do,need (情态)+ do,当为被动语态时,还可need + doing. 本题考最后一种用法,选A。如有tobe clean 则也为正确答案。

典:done,"不可能已经"。must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时)。

一、 被动语态的用法:

  1. 一般现在时的被动语态构成:is / am / are + 及物动词的过去分词 Our classroom is cleaned everyday. I am asked to study hard. Knives are used for cutting things.
  2. 一般过去时的被动语态构成:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词 A new shop was built last year. Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago.
  3. 现在完成时被动语态构成:has / have + been + 及物动词的过去分词 This book has been translated into many languages. Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.
  4. 一般将来时的被动语态构成:will+ be + 及物动词的过去分词 A new hospital will be built in our city. Many more trees will be planted next year.
  5. 含有情态动词的被动语态构成:情态动词+ be + 及物动词的过去分词 Young trees must be watered often. Your mistakes should be corrected right now. The door may be locked inside. Your homework can be handed in tomorrow.
  6. 现在进行时被动语态构成:am / is / are + being + 及物动词的过去分词 Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→ My bike is being repaired by Tom now. They are planting trees over there. → Trees are being planted over there by them.
  7. 不定式的被动语态:to + be + 及物动词的过去分词 There are two books to be read. → There are twenty more trees to be planted.

二、 怎样把主动语态改成被动语态?

把主动语态改为被动语态非常简单,可以遵循以下几个步骤:

  1. 先找出谓语动词;
  2. 再找出谓语动词后的宾语;
  3. 把宾语用作被动语态中的主语;
  4. 注意人称、时态和数的变化。

例:

  1. Bruce writes a letter every week. →A letter is written by Bruce every week.
  2. Li Lei mended the broken bike this morning.→The broken bike was mended by Li Lei this morning.
  3. He has written two novels so far.→Two novels have been written by him so far.
  4. They will plant ten trees tomorrow.→Ten trees will be planted by them tomorrow.
  5. Lucy is writing a letter now.→A letter is being written by Lucy now.
  6. You must lock the door when you leave.→the door must be locked when you leave.

三、 使用被动语态应注意的几个问题:

  1. 不及物动词无被动语态。 What will happen in 100 years. The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.
  2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。 This pen writes well. This new book sells well.
  3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式主动语态中不带to ,但变为被动语态时,须加上to 。 例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by. →My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by. The boss made the little boy do heavy work. →The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.
  4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。 He gave me a book. →A book was given to me by him. He showed me a ticket. →A ticket was shown to me by him. My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.
  5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。 We can't laugh him. →He can't be laugh by us. He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day. The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.</CA>

阅读全文

热点资讯