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普利策文学奖 免费编辑 添加义项名

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普利策文学奖不是一个独立的奖项,而是美国普利策奖众多分枝中的一个。约瑟夫·普利策在去世前第7年--1904年,立下遗嘱,将自己的财产捐献给美国的哥伦比亚大学,由他们建立一个新闻学院。这笔高达200万美元的款项中,有四分之一被用来设立奖项,后来这笔钱成为了普利策奖的基金。1917年,该奖的第一届颁奖仪式举行,此后每年颁发一次。

基本信息

  • 中文名称

    普利策文学奖

  • 外文名称

    Pulitzer prize for Fiction

  • 包含

    13个奖项

  • 代表

    Middlesex(中性)

  • 颁布时间

    1917年

折叠 编辑本段 人物介绍

约瑟夫·普利策生前是美国最著名的报人,他创立的编辑写作制度至今都在影响着报业的运作,因而普利策奖中最重要的组成部分就是新闻类奖项。目前共包含突发新闻报道奖、调查报道奖等14个。但是"由于普利策敏锐、有远见的洞察力",该奖还设立了文艺类奖项,目前包括6个文学奖和一个音乐奖,而且正是这些非新闻类的奖项在一定程度上扩大了普利策奖的影响力。目前普利策奖每个奖项的奖金为一万美元。

最初普利策只设立了13个奖项,其中文学奖有5个,包括小说类、戏剧类和传记类等等。但是出于长远考虑,他决定设立一个监督咨询委员会,由后者在将来确定奖项的设立、变更等等。几十年来,这个委员会做出了一些很有突破性的决定,曾先后增设了摄影类和诗类奖项,并打破了"音乐奖的评选范围仅限于古典音乐领域"的界限。

折叠 编辑本段 特色

普利策文学奖的标新立异之处在于它与大众口味的背道而驰,畅销的文学作品从不受它的垂青,即便大作家的作品也不例外。

诸如,1941年它就"抛弃"了红极一时的《丧钟为谁而鸣》,直到12年后《老人与海》问世时,它才将文学奖授予海明威。同样如福克纳的《八月之光》也有此"待遇"。这种评选使得它经常被置于争议之中,在一本《美国普利策奖金内幕》的书中就曾提到,1988年曾有近50位作家给媒体写信,怒称两名最受读者推崇的美国黑人作家从未进入普利策奖的视野,并认为它有种族主义倾向。而且普利策文学奖空缺多届,迄今已不下10次。

实际上很多优秀的作品还是没有被普利策文学奖错过的,其中包括伊迪丝·华顿的《天真时代》(1921年获奖)、赛珍珠的《大地》(1932年获奖)、玛格丽特·米切尔的《飘》(1937年获奖)、约翰·斯坦贝克的《愤怒的葡萄》(1940年获奖)、赫尔曼·沃克的《凯恩舰哗变》(1952年获奖)、哈珀·李的《杀死一只知更鸟》(1961年获奖)、艾丽斯·沃克的《紫色》(1983年获奖)等等。这些作品都曾在中国出版过。

折叠 编辑本段 历年获奖名单

小说类 Fiction

2003 Middlesex(中性) by Jeffrey Eugenides

2002 Empire Falls(帝国的崩塌) by Richard Russo

2001 The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay(卡瓦利与克雷的神奇冒险) by Michael Chabon

2000 Interpreter of Maladies(医生的翻译员) by Jhumpa Lahiri

1999 The Hours(小时) by Michael Cunningham

1998 American Pastoral(美国田园)by Philip Roth

1997 Martin Dressler: The Tale of an American Dreamer(马丁·迪热思尔:一个美国梦的故事) by Steven Millhauser

1996 Independence Day(独立日) by Richard Ford

1995 The Stone Diaries(石头日记) by Carol Shields

1994 The Shipping News(航运新闻) by E. Annie Proulx

1993 A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain(一个好的气味从一个奇怪的山) by Robert Olen Butler

1992 A Thousand Acres(一千英亩) by Jane Smiley

1991 Rabbit at Rest(兔子安眠) by John Updike

1990 The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love(马博王爱的歌曲) by Oscar Hijuelos

1989 Breathing Lessons(呼吸课程) by Anne Tyler

1988 Beloved(心爱) by Toni Morrison

1987 A Summons to Memphis(传票孟菲斯) by Peter Taylor

1986 Lonesome Dove(寂寞之鸽) by Larry McMurtry

1985 Foreign Affairs(外交事务) by Alison Lurie

1984 Ironweed(紫苑草) by William Kennedy

1983 The Color Purple(紫色姊妹花) by Alice Walker

1982 Rabbit Is Rich(兔子很有钱) by John Updike

1981 A Confederacy of Dunces(伟人有缺点是愚人的同谋) by John Kennedy Toole

1980 The Executioner's Song(刽子手之歌) by Norman Mailer

1979 The Stories of John Cheever(约翰·奇弗的故事)by John Cheever

1978 Elbow Room(拥挤的世界) by James Alan McPherson

1977 No Award (没有颁奖,无获奖作品)

1976 Humboldt's Gifths(洪堡的礼物) by Saul Bellow

1975 The Killer Angels(杀手天使) by Michael Shaara

1974 No Award (没有颁奖,无获奖作品)

1973 The Optimist's Daughter(乐观主义者的女儿) by Eudora Welty

1972 Angle of Repose(静止的角度) by Wallace Stegner

1971 No Award (没有颁奖,无获奖作品)

1970 Collected Stories(故事集) by Jean Stafford

1969 House Made of Dawn(黎明之屋) by N. Scott Momaday

1968 The Confessions of Nat Turner by William Styron

1967 The Fixer(牢固) by Bernard Malamud

1966 Collected Stories(故事集) by Katherine Anne Porter

1965 The Keepers of the House(房子的守护者) by Shirley Ann Grau

非小说类 Nonfiction

2003 A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide( 从地狱的一个问题:美国和年龄的种族屠杀

)by Samantha Power

2002 Carry Me Home: Birmingham, Alabama: The Climactic Battle of the Civil Rights Revolution(带我回家:伯明翰阿拉巴马州:战斗的高潮民权革命) by Diane McWhorter

2001 Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan( 昭和天皇,而且也塑造了人的现代日本)by Herbert P. Bix

2000 Embracing Defeat(拥抱失败) by John W. Dower

1999 Annals of the Former World(这个前世界纪录) by John McPhee

1998 Guns, Germs, and Steel( 枪炮、病菌与钢铁)by Jared Diamond

1997 Ashes to Ashes(灰飞烟灭) by Richard Kluger

1996 The Haunted Land(闹鬼的土地) by Tina Rosenberg

1995 The Beak of the Finch(芬奇的嘴部) by Jonathan Weiner

1994 Lenin's Tomb(列宁之墓) by David Remnick

1993 Lincoln at Gettysburg(林肯葛底斯堡) by Garry Wills

1992 The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power(这个奖:传奇寻求石油、金钱和权力

) by Daniel Yergin

1991 The Ants(蚂蚁) by Bert Hölldobler and Edward O. Wilson

1990 And Their Children After Them(和他们的孩子在后头) by Dale Maharidge and Michael Williamson

1989 A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam( 一个明亮的撒谎:约翰·保罗和美国在越南)by Neil Sheehan

1988 The Making of the Atomic Bomb(制作原子弹) by Richard Rhodes

1987 Arab and Jew: Wounded Spirits in a Promised Land(阿拉伯人和犹太人:受伤的精神在应许之地) by David K. Shipler

1986 Common Ground(共同点) by J. Anthony Lukas

传记类 Biography

2003 Master of the Senate: The Years of Lyndon Johnson(主人的参议院:多年的约翰逊) by Robert A. Caro

2002 John Adams(约翰·亚当斯) by David McCullough

2001 W.E.B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919-1963(W.E.B.机械化和女性:争取平等和美国的世纪,1919 - 1963) by David Levering Lewis

2000 Véra by Stacy Schiff

1999 Lindbergh(林德伯格) by A. Scott Berg

1998 Personal History(个人历史) by Katharine Graham

1997 Angela's Ashes(安琪拉的骨灰) by Frank McCourt

1996 God: A Biography(上帝:传记) by Jack Miles

1995 Harriet Beecher Stowe: A Life(哈丽特·比彻·斯托:一种生命) by Joan D. Hedrick

1994 W.E.B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919( W.E.B.机械化和女性:传记的一场比赛,1868 - 1919)by David Levering Lewis

1993 Truman(杜鲁门) by David McCullough

1992 Fortunate Son(幸运的儿子) by Lewis B. Puller Jr.

1991 Jackson Pollock(杰克逊·波洛克) by Steven Naifeh and Gregory White Smith

1990 Machiavelli in Hell(马基雅维里在地狱) by Sebastian de Grazia

1989 Oscar Wilde(奥斯卡·王尔德) by Richard Ellmann

1988 Look Homeward: A Life of Thomas Wolfe(看起来归途上:托马斯·沃尔夫的生活) by David Herbert Donald

1987 Bearing the Cross by David J. Garrow

1986 Louise Bogan: A Portrait(路易斯·博甘:一幅肖像) by Elizabeth Frank

历史类 History

2003 An Army at Dawn: The War in Africa, 1942-1943(军队在黎明的战争,在非洲,1942 - 1943) by Rick Atkinson

2002 The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America(形而上学的俱乐部,一个故事的想法在美国) by Louis Menand

2001 Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation(成立兄弟:革命的一代) by Joseph J. Ellis

2000 Freedom from Fear(免除恐惧的自由) by David M. Kennedy

1999 Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898(高谭市:一个历史的纽约1898) by Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace

1998 Summer for the Gods(众神之夏) by Edward J. Larson

1997 Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making of the Constitution(原始含义:政治和思想使宪法的规定) by Jack N. Rakove

1996 William Cooper's Town( 威廉·库珀的城镇)by Alan Taylor

1995 No Ordinary Time(一个不平凡的时间) by Doris Kearns Goodwin

1994 No Award (没有获奖作品)

1993 The Radicalism of the American Revolution(美国革命的激进) by Gordon S. Wood

1992 The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties( 自由的命运:亚伯拉罕·林肯和民权)by Mark E. Neely Jr.

1991 A Midwife's TaleI(一个助产士的故事) by Laurel Thatcher Ulrich

1990 In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines by Stanley Karnow

1989 Battle Cry of Freedom(呐喊的自由) by James M. McPherson

And Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-63(穿过水:美国在王年,1954 - 63)

by Taylor Branch

1988 The Launching of Modern American Science, 1846-1976(开展现代美国科学,1846 - 1976)by Robert V. Bruce

1987 Voyagers to the West(西部的星际旅客说有着特殊) by Bernard Bailyn

1986 The Heavens and the Earth(诸天与地) by Walter A. McDougall

戏剧类 Drama

2003 Anna in the Tropics(安娜在热带) by Nilo Cruz

2002 Topdog/Underdog by Suzan-Lori Parks

2001 Proof(证明) by David Auburn

2000 Dinner with Friends(友情晚餐) by Donald Margulies

1999 Wit(机智) by Margaret Edson

1998 How I Learned to Drive(我学会了开车吗) by Paula Vogel

1997 No Award (没有获奖作品)

1996 Rent(租) by Jonathan Larson

1995 The Young Man from Atlanta by Horton Foote

1994 Three Tall Women(三个高个子女性) by Edward Albee

1993 Angels in America(天使在美国) by Tony Kushner

1992 The Kentucky Cycle(在肯塔基州的周期)by Robert Schenkkan

1991 Lost in Yonkers(迷失在扬克斯) by Neil Simon

1990 The Piano Lesson(钢琴课) by August Wilson

1989 The Heidi Chronicles(海蒂的记载)by Wendy Wasserstein

1988 Driving Miss Daisy(为戴茜小姐开车)by Alfred Uhry

1987 Fences(栅栏) by August Wilson

1986 No Award(没有获奖作品)

诗歌类 Poetry

2003 Moy Sand and Gravel(莫伊沙砾) by Paul Muldoon

2002 Practical Gods(实践神) by Carl Dennis

2001 Different Hours(不同小时) by Stephen Dunn

2000 Repair(修复) by C.K. Williams

1999 Blizzard of One(暴雪) by Mark Strand

1998 Black Zodiac(黑色黄道带) by Charles Wright

1997 Alive Together(一起活着) by Lisel Mueller

1996 The Dream of the Unified Front(梦想的统一战线) by Jorie Graham

1995 The Simple Truth(简单的事实) by Philip Levine

1994 Neon Vernacular(彩虹方言) by Yusef Komunyakaa

1993 The Wild Iris(野鸢尾) by Louise Gluck

1992 Selected Poems(诗选) by James Tate

1991 Near Changes(变化附近) by Mona Van Duyn

1990 The World Doesn't End(世界上还没有结束) by Charles Simic

1989 New and Collected Poems(新作与诗集) by Richard Wilbur

1988 Partial Accounts(部分账户) by William Meredith

1987 Thomas and Beulah by Rita Dove

1986 The Flying Changez(飞行改变) by Henry Taylor

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