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直接引语是与间接引语相对的语法概念。

引用别人的话有两种方式,一种是直接引用别人原句,这叫直接引语;另一种是用自己转述人话,且不能用引号,这是间接引语

基本信息

  • 中文名称

    直接引语

  • 解释

    讲述别人的原话,并放在引号

  • 属性

    名词

  • 用途

    语言语法

折叠 编辑本段 例句

如小明说:"我是一个学生"

以直接引语表达则可以为"小明他说'我是一个学生'"

以间接引语表达则可以为"小明说他是一个学生"

折叠 编辑本段 英语中的直接引语与间接引语

折叠 扩展

1、直接引语如果表示客观真理,变间接引语时,时态不变。

2、主句谓语为一般现在时,变间接引语时,若主句谓语时态不变仍为一般现在时,从句时态也不变。

3、直接引语有明确表示时间的词语,变间接引语时,时态不变。

4、若直接引语中含有could,must,should等情态动词,变间接引语时,时态不变。

5、直接引述别人原话,叫直接引语。

6、用自己的话转述别人的话,叫间接引语。

折叠 引语四点变化

I.时态变化

直接引语变为间接引语时,若主句为过去时态,变为间接引语的宾语从句的时态如下表:

直接引语

间接引语

一般现在时

一般过去时

一般过去时

过去完成时

一般将来时

过去将来时

现在进行时

过去进行时

现在完成时

过去完成时

过去完成时

过去完成时(不变)

过去进行时

过去进行时(不变)

can

could

may

might

must

must/ had to

祈使句

不定式

如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to,must, need)和已经是过去时的形式时,(例:could, should, would, might)不再变。

2时间状语,地点状语,指示代词、动词

直接引语变为间接引语时,有些时间状语地点状语,指示代词和动词也要作相应的变动。

直接引语

间接引语

时间状语

now 现在

then 那时;当时

时间状语

today 今天

that day 那天

时间状语

tonight 今晚

that night 那天晚上

时间状语

this week 本周

that week 上周

时间状语

yesterday 昨天

the day before前一天

时间状语

the day before yesterday 前天

two days before 前两天

时间状语

three days ago三天以前

three days before 前三天

时间状语

last week 上周

the week before前一周

时间状语

tomorrow 明天

the next day /the following day第二天

时间状语

next week 下周

the next week 第二个星期

时间状语

next month下个月

the following month第二个月

时间状语

this morning这个早晨

that morning那个早晨

时间状语

ago/last以前/最后

before之前

指示代词

this 这

that 那

指示代词

these 这些

those 那些

地点状语

here 这里

there 那里

动词

come 来

go 去

动词

bring带来

take带去

注:直接引语转换成间接引语时的变化应视实际情况而定。假如就在当天转述,today,yesterday,tomorrow等就不需改变;如果在当地转述,here也不必改为there,come也不必改为go。另外,直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。

II.如何变句型

①直接引语如果是陈述句,间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。如:

She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."

→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.

②直接引语如果是反意疑问句、选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改为由whether或if引导的宾语从句.

如:

He said, "Can you swim, John?"

→He asked John if he could swim.

"You have finished the homework, haven't you?" my mother asked.

→My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework.

"Do you go to school by bus or by bike?"

→He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.

③直接引语如果是特殊问句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词疑问副词引导的宾语从句(宾语从句必须用陈

述句语序)。

She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"

→ She asked me when they had their dinner.

④直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为"tell (ask) sb (not) to do sth."句型。

"Don't make any noise," she said to the children.

→She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise.

"Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.

→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.

⑤直接引语如果是以"Let's"开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用"suggest +动名词(或从句)。"如:

He said, "Let's go to the film."

→He suggested going to the film.

或He suggested that they should go to see the film.

⑥直接引语是感叹句时,间接引语为what 或how 引导,也可以用that 引导。

She said, "What a lovely day it is !"

→She said what a lovely day it was .或She said that it was a lovely day.

⑦如果直接引语中含有since, when, while 引导的表示过去时间的状语从句,在变为间接引语时,只改变主句中的谓语动词,从句的一般过去时则不变。如:

He said to me, "I have taught English since he came here ."

→He told me that he had taught English since he came here.

III.人称变化

遵从一主二宾三不变

一主: 从句的第一人称随主句的主语变化。

eg: "I have bought an expensive car , " said the boss.→The boss said he had bought an expensive car.

二宾: 从句的第二人称随主句的宾语变化。

eg: I often tell him , "You are the luckiest boy I have ever seen . " → I often tell him he is the luckiest boy I have ever seen . "

三不变:从句的第三人称不需要变化。

IV.注意

在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。

①直接引语是客观真理。

②主句谓语为一般现在时,变间接引语时,若主句谓语时态不变仍为一般现在时,从句时态也不变。

③直接引语是一般现在时,且表示反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。如:

He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →He said he gets up at six every morning。

④直接引语为谚语警句或名人名言时,时态不变。

⑤直接引语为客观事实真理,时态不变,常考的有:

Light travels faster than sound.光速比声速快。

The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。

The moon goes around the earth.月球绕着地球转。

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