在英语中，被动语态使用得比汉语要多，要普遍，虽然大多数句子都使用主动语态，但被动语态在英语中也是极为重要的，许多课本及考试乃至实际应用中都常常涉及到这个问题。一般说来，当强调动作承受者，不必说出执行者或含糊不清的执行者时，多用被动语态。需要注意的是，许多地方与汉语不同。注意:那些汉语中有"被……"的短语360百科往往又不是被动语态，而是主系表结构。还有些特殊现象，如:"known to me的意思，英语却应该用被原动态。还要注意，英语的被动语态往往由"by"引出，而有用介词"by on foot"步行(美国人有时用"by foot")，"in carriage"(乘四轮马车)等等。还有假主动，真被动的十几个常用词的用法，以及"so heavy to carry"而不用"so heavy to be carried"等习惯用法。有关这类情况，做到心中有数对全面掌握被动语态，准确无误地解答习题席秋非常关键，被动态必须涉及的是动词的各种时态变化的问题。英语的时态本来很复杂，怎样记住各自的被动形式呢?首先要明确"将来李服建绍进行无被动，现在完成时进行同"。这两种时态无被动形式。
另外，不及物动词带有同源宾语的动词，反变身代词的动词和系动词都无被动形式。即便如此，还有不定式，动名词，分词，以及它们的复合结构的被动态，再加上情态动词，助动词以及它剂脚点板么宽意里热起略们的疑问式和否定式从中掺杂。下面口诀就以动词"do"为例，即"do、did"过去式"done"过去分词，以口诀班攻形式总结各种时态的被动态。一定对你有所启示。 当然了，被动语态也可以概括为"be done"。也就是"be+过去分词"例如:be said。
will\\be going to\\be 美晶作突吧图耐般倒(about)to+do(V.)
w被谁担计程妒律宪械临联ould/should be + done(V. p.p.)
I am asked..
He/s数斤织听局青紧优温he is asked微...
We/you/they are a味复故南脚或sked...
I am not asked...
He/She is not asked...
We/you/they are 听移not asked根铁...
Am I asked...?
Is he/she asked...?
Are we/you/they asked...?
I was asked...
He/She was asked ...
We/you/they were asked...
I was n粮字挥布牛层属材我单弦ot asked...
He/Shewas not asked...
We/you/they were not asked
Was I asked...?
Was he/she asked...?
Were we/you/they asked...?
现在完成时，被动 have(has)been done。
现、过进行be doing，被动be加being done。
主:We beli尔林绍调序沉eve him.
被:He is be按空混盟已冲斯该成lieved by us.
主:He bought his children so联原宽那me pens.
被:Some pe过迫临宗伯口掉观艺以ns were bought for his child采热纪示ren by him.
主:Everyone will know the truth soon .
被:The truth will be known by everyone.
主:Mary is making a doll.
被:A doll is bei鸡ng made by Mary.
主:They were carrying the hurt player.
被:The hurt player was being carried by them .
主:He has received the letter.
被:The letter 担权has been receiv金ed by him.
主:They had built ten bridges.
被:Ten bri却岩稳阻参权委定道元dges had been built by them
1、主动:The children gave the foreign guests a 冷边黄视安承况际皮刚刚warm welcome.
被动:The foreign guests were gi优革阿次景们随决ven a warm welcome by the children.
主动:People reg每移ard him as brilliant.
被动:He is regar刻既概投露读吃空钱简体ded as brilliant by people.
以上两例都是一般时态用"be done"的事例，be有人称、时、数变，第三人称"foreign frie两慢路均对思nds"是复数，时态一般过去时，所以"be done"就是"were given"，而"People regard him a学括副s brilliant"一句，被动后的"be done"就变成第三人称单数"is 许regarded"的降往容持革穿搞功族形式了。
This 息算身入谁居找speech was delivered by comrade Wang. ("was delivered"即为轮督万婷河味乐度少一般过去时的被动态)
There was a serious 道游将意号青严train accident n养季体义少又错ear the border. 质错Two people w做武ere killed and twelve were injured.
A person who is truly honest is called a 城请怕地鸡切进straight arrow.
A note was passed up to the speaker.
John was elected president of the class instead of Harry.
Volcanoes are described as active, dormant or extinct.
The soldier was killed, but the train was saved.
He was thought to be clever but dishonest.
The first zoological garden in the United States was established in 1874.
Families were often broken up; wives were taken away from their husbands and children from their parents.
The information is urgently needed.
Most environmental problems exist because adequate measures for preventing them were not taken in the past.
1、主动:We have studied English for 3 years at the spare-time school.
被动:English has been studied by us for 3 years at the spare-time school.("have"随新主语变为"has")
2、主动:They had produced 100 tractors by the end of last year.
被动:100 tractors had been produced by the end of last year.
3、主动:They have set up a power station in their home town.
被动:A power station has been set up in their home town.
4、主动:They have warned us to be careful of rats.
被动:We have been warned to be careful of rats by them.
5、主动:People have piled plastic bags full of rubbish in streets.
被动: Plastic bags full of rubbish have been piled in streets.
6、主动:We have used nuclear energy to produce electricity.
被动:Nuclear energy has been used to produce electricity by us.
7、主动:No one has ever beaten him at tennis.
被动:He has never been beaten at tennis.
The person who owns the gun may try to deny that he has used it. But anyone seeing the smoke knows the gun has just been fired.
Today is Cilia's wedding day, she has just been married to Bob.
The subjects of these lectures have been announced by the lecture committee.
主动:Somebody had cleaned my shoes.
被动:My shoes had been cleaned by somebody.
主动:When I returned I found that they had towed (tow) my car away, I asked why they had done this and they told me that it was because I had parked it under a "No Parking Sign".
被动:My car had been towed away. I asked why this had been done and told that...it had been parked under a "No Parking Sign".
主动:They had build three ships by last December.
被动:By last December three ships had been built by them.
Research had been centred on the improvement of natural building materials before synthetics were created.
He did not say if all those steel pipes had been examined.
After plastic had been created, engineers were given a much wide choice of materials.
"shall(will) do"，被动变"do"为"be done"
即由"shall do"或"will do"变为"shall be done"或"will be done"。
例:主动:We shall build several big modern power plants in our city.
被动:Several big modern power plants will be built in our city.
("shall do"中的"shall"要随新主语变为"will"，"do"要变为"be done"。)
主动:I shall send my second boy to school next September.
被动:My second boy will be sent to school next September.
主动:In order to fool people cheaps and swindlers will make such bricks out of lead covering the "lead brick" with gold.
被动:Such bricks will be made out of lead covering the "lead brick" with gold by swindlers.
主动:They will ask you a lot of strange questions.
被动:You will be asked a lot of strange questions by them.
主动:The Chinese people will make more space explorations in the future.
被动:More space explorations will be made in the future by the Chinese people.
After a period of use, the batteries should be changed. 电池使用一段时间后，应该更换。
Usually, the electricity is on for 24 hours. But tomorrow it will be cut off in the day time. 通常是整天供电的，但是明天早晨将会停电。
More peaceful uses will be found for nuclear explosives in the future. 在将来会发现更多的和平利用核爆炸的途径。
More hard work will be needed to make this wonder come true in a short time from now. 为了在短时间内实现这个奇迹，从现在开始需要做更多工作。
The machine will not be used again. 这机器不能再用了。
Will more gas be needed? 需要更多的煤气吗?
主动:A few days ago we were still not quite sure whether we should carry out the new plan ahead of time.
被动:whether the new plan would be carried out ahead of time.
主动:I did not say that we would change the equipment.
被动:I did not say that the equipment would be changed.
主动:My supervisor told me that he would give me a special tutorial a few days ago.
被动:My supervisor told me that a special tutorial would be given to me a few days ago.
主动:I never thought that he would bring me the information so early.
被动:I never thought that the information would be brought to me by him so early.
例;We hope your company will soon be sending an engineer over to check this equipment. (将来进行时)我们希望贵公司早些派一名工程师来检查这台设备。
In a few minutes our passenger plane will be flying in the stratosphere.(将来进行时)几分钟后我们的客机将在同温层中飞行。
We hope scientists will be tapping new energy sources to meet the need for power. 我们希望科学家们将发掘新的能源来满足能量的需要。(将来进行时)
What will you be doing this evening? 今晚你将做什么?(将来进行时)
I have been living in Anshan Since 1980.(现在完成进行时)1980年以来，我一直住在鞍山。
How long have you been studying English? 你学英语多久了?(现在完成进行时)
We have been waiting at the airport for the because of the thick fog. 由于大雾，我们已经在机场等了一整天了。(现在完成进行时)
Since then, applied mathematicians have been coping successfully with many problems in astronomy. 从那时以来，应用数学家成功地处理了许多天文学上的问题。
主动:The workers are repairing the main building of the Northeast Engineering Institute.
被动:The main building of the Northeast Engineering Institute is being repaired by the workers.
Two reservoirs are being built at the same time. 两座水库同时建造。
The nasty question is being considered by the committee members. 委员会的委员们正在考虑那个棘手的问题.
Equipment and foodstuffs are being flown to the flood stricken areas. 设备和食品正在被空运到灾区。
The building of another fly-over is being planned. 他们在计划修建另一座跨线桥。
We could not get through because the 19th Road was being repaired. 我们过不去，因为一九路正维修呢。
主动:We must keep this inmind.
被动:This must be kept inmind.
主动:We can put the refrigerator in that place.
被动:The refrigerator can be put in that place.
主动:We shall not use the washing machine again.
被动:The washing machine will not be used again.
我们不能再用那台洗衣机了。 原来的谓语"shall use"被动态中随新主语变为"will"。
主动:We shall take more measures to prevent corrosion.
被动:More measures will be taken to prevent corrosion. ("shall"变"will")
I ought to be criticized for it. 我应该为此受到批评。
All this has to be solved with great care. 这一切得认真解决。
The lobby is going to be rebuilt. 门厅将被重建。
The exhibition is to be opened tomorrow. 展览会将在明日开放。
It can't have been lost in the post, can it?
例:Why has(一助)not anything been(二助)done to end the strike?
"not"必须放在第一助动词"has"之后，第一助动词"has"必须放在主语"anything"之前。决不可写成: why has not been anything done toendthe strike?或why has been not anything done to end the strike?
The exercise will not be done in class.
不可写成:The exercise will be not done in class.
In what other way could(一助)information about Mars be(二助)obtained?
Why had he been imprisoned?
Need she be told about it?
例:What(主语)could be dropped from a satellite?
What measures(主语)are being taken to develop this new science?(主语为疑问词"what"所修饰)
What kind of device(主语)is needed to make the control system simple?(主语为疑问词所修饰)
What has been done to improve the techniques?
- 理解含情态动词的被动语态的概念 含情态动词的被动语态说明某个被动性动作所反映出的感情和态度。初中阶段可用于被动语态的情态动词有"can、may、must、need、should"等，分别表示"能够被……"，"可以被……"，"必须被……"，"需要被……"，应该被……"等。
(三)反意疑问句借助情态动词构成附加疑问部分。如: This bridge can be built next year，can't it?这座桥能建成，是吗? This book shouldn't be taken out of the library，should it?这本书不应被带出图书馆，是吗?
(四)否定句在情态动词后面加上"not"或"never"即可，但"must"表"必要"时否定式为"needn't"。如:This work needn't be done at once.这项工作没必要立即做。This dustbin shouldn't be put here.这个垃圾箱不应放在这儿。 三、含情态动词的被动语态的一般疑问句的回答应保留原情态动词，但"must"表"必须"时，其否定回答应用"needn't"、"need"表"必要"时，其肯定回答应用"must"。如: -Should my exercises be finished today?我的作业应在今天完成吗? -Yes，they should.是的，应在今天完成。 (No，they shouldn't.不，不应在今天完成。) -Must his exercise book be handed in at once?他的练习本必须立即上交吗? -Yes，it must.是的，必须立即上交。 (No，it needn't.不，不必立即上交。) -Need he be operated on at once?他必须立即手术吗? -Yes，he must.是的，他必须。 (No，he needn't.不，他不必。)
appear, die(死亡),disappear(消失), end (vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand
break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place.
After the fire, very little remained of my house.
比较: rise, fall, happen是不及物动词;raise, seat是及物动词。
(错)The price has been risen.
(对)The price has risen.
(错)The accident was happened last week.
(对)The accident happened last week.
(错)The price has raised.
(对)The price has been raised.
(对)Please be seated.
fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to
This key just fits the lock.
appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn
It sounds good.
die, death, dream, live, life
She dreamed a bad dream last night.
(对)She likes to swim.
(错)To swim is liked by her.
Our classroom is cleaned everyday.
I am asked to study hard by my mother.
Knives are used for cutting things.
2.一般过去时的被动语态构成:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词
The new shop was built last year.
Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago.
3.现在完成时的被动语态构成:has / have + been +及物动词的过去分词
This book has been translated into many languages.
Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.
4.一般将来时的被动语态构成:will+ be + 及物动词的过去分词
A new hospital will be built in our city.
Many more trees will be planted next year.
5.含有情态动词的被动语态构成:情态动词+ be + 及物动词的过去分词
Young trees must be watered often.
Your mistakes should be corrected right now.
The door may be locked inside.
Your homework can be handed in tomorrow.
Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→
My bike is being repaired by Tom now.
They are planting trees over there. →
Trees are being planted over there by them.
7.不定式的被动语态:to + be + 及物动词的过去分词
There are two books to be read. →
There are twenty more trees to be planted.
1.不及物动词无被动语态。 如:happen, break down, come out......
What will happen in 100 years.
The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.
2.有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。 如: write, sell, ride.....
This pen writes well.
This new book sells well.
例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something
see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something
A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.
The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.
He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.
He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.
My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.
We can't laugh at him. →He can't be laughed at by us.
He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.
The nurse is taking care of the sickpeople. →The sickpeople is being taken care of by the nurse.
即:S+V+IO+DO→IO+ be done +DO→DO+ be done + prep. +IO
- g. 1) My uncle gave me a gifton on my birthday.
→I was given a gifton on my birthday.
→A gift was given to me on my birthday.
- We often hear him play the guitar.
→He is often heard toplay the guitar.
→Itis often heard from him to play the guitar.
We heard him singing in his room just now.
-He was heard to sing in his room just now.
need doing something也表示被动
1 am/is/are +done (过去分词)一般现在时
Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits.
2 has /have been done现在完成时
All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start.
3 am/is /are being done现在进行时
A new cinema is being built here.
4 was/were done一般过去时
I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.
5 had been done过去完成时
By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing.
6 was/were being done过去进行时
A meeting was being held when I was there.
7 shall/will be done一般将来时
Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes.
8 should/would be done过去将来时
The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived.
9 shall/will have been done将来完成时(少用)
The project will have been completed before July.
10 should/would have been done过去将来完成时(少用)
He told me that his new clothes would have been made very soon.
The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter.
His mother gave him a present for his birthday.可改为He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.
Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette.可改为The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.
4 在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe等后面不定式作宾语补语时，在主动结构中不定式to要省略，但变为被动结构时，要加to。
Someone saw a stranger walk into the building.可改为A stranger was seen to walk into the building.
The meeting is to be put off till Friday.
I don't like being laughed at in the public.
My bike was stolen last night.
I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should accept the offer.
The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people.(一个主语就够了)
It is said that+从句及其他类似句型
一些表示"据说"或"相信"的动词如believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think等可以用于句型"It+be+过去分词+that从句"或"主语+be+过去分词+to do sth."。有:
It is said that…据说……
It is reported that…据报道……
It is believed that…大家相信……
It is hoped that…大家希望……
It is well-known that…众所周知……
It is thought that…大家认为……
It is suggested that…据建议……
It is said that the boy has passed the national exam.(=The boy is said to have passed the national exam.)
This kind of cloth washes well.
注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征，而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的影响。 试比较:The door won't lock.(指门本身有毛病)
The door won't be locked.(指不会有人来锁门,指"门没有锁"是人的原因)
2 表示"发生、进行"的不及物动词和短语，如:happen, last, take place, break out, come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out等以主动形式表示被动意义。
How do the newspapers come out?这些报纸是如何引出来的呢?
3 系动词没有被动形式,但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词feel, sound, taste, look, feel等在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。
Your reason sounds reasonable.
1 在need，want，require, bear等词的后面，动名词用主动形式表示被动意义，其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。
The house needs repairing(to be repaired).这房子需要修理。
The picture-book is well worth reading.(=The picture-book is very worthy to be read.)
I have a lot of things to do this afternoon.(to do与things是动宾关系，与I是主谓关系。) 试比较:
I'll go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted? (此处用不定式的被动语态作定语表明you不是post动作的执行者。)
4 在某些"形容词+不定式"做表语或宾语补足语的结构中，句子的主语或宾语又是动词不定式的逻辑宾语时，这时常用不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。这些形容词有nice，easy，fit，hard，difficult，important，impossible，pleasant，interesting等。 例This problem is difficult to work out .(可看作to work out省略了for me).
5 在too… to…结构中，不定式前面可加逻辑主语，所以应用主动形式表示被动意义。
This book is too expensive (for me) to buy.
6 在there be…句型中，当动词不定式修饰名词作定语时，不定式用主动式作定语，重点在人，用被动形式作定语，重点在物。 例There is no time to lose(to be lost).(用to lose可看成for us to lose;用to be lost，谁lost time不明确。)
7 在be to do结构中的一些不定式通常应用主动表主动,被动表被动。然而,由于古英语的影响,下列动词rent, blame, let等仍用不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。
Who is to blame for starting the fire?
1 "under +名词"结构，表示"某事在进行中"。常见的有:under control(受控制), under treatment(在治疗中), under repair(在修理中), under discussion(在讨论中), under construction(在施工中)。
The building is under construction( is being constructed).
2 "beyond+名词"结构，"出乎……胜过……、范围、限度"。常见的有:beyond belief (令人难以置信)，beyond one's reach(鞭长莫及)，beyond one's control(无法控制)，beyond our hope.我们的成功始料不及。
The rumour is beyond belief(=can't be believed).
His honest character is above all praise.=His honest character cannot be praised enough.
4 "for+名词"结构，表示"适于……、为着……"。如:for sale(出售), for rent(出租)等。
That house is for sale. (= That house is to be sold).
5 "in+名词"结构，表示"在……过程中或范围内"常见的有:in print(在印刷中)，in sight(在视野范围内)，等。
The book is not yet in print.(=is not yet printed)